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The Complete

Illustrated History

of the




Part I Chapter 1: Herefordshire Origins



Description: Description: whitchc03


The Parish Church at Whitchurch, Herefordshire (some information about it)



1. 0 The Search for the Gardiners’ Origins


James Gardiner, the father of Henry (b1811, joiner) and grandfather of Henry (b1835, builder) from whom all the Wallasey Gardiners descend, left the Wye Valley c1815 to start a new life in Liverpool. There had been Gardiners (or Gardyners) in the area for centuries but establishing a link proved rather difficult and the results were far more interesting than could ever have been imagined. No information of any sort had come down to the grandchildren of Edward Gardiner (b1863) but there seems to be some accurate tradition in other branches of the family of a connection with a gentleman called Edward Gardiner who was allegedly a rich mill owner. The available evidence does not so far support the idea that Edward owned a mill, particularly not the Old Mill, though we cannot be certain. When Queenie Griffiths and Lucy Holdgate visited the area in the 1920s they appear to have come away confirmed in the belief, though again any certainty about what if anything they found is impossible. They were also contacted by an American Gardiner in the 1920s who gave them to understand that his ancestors had emigrated around the time James went north. Unfortunately we have no idea who these ancestors were.



Queenie’s reference to the caravan trek


Unravelling the story was complicated by the fact that James not born a Gardiner, frustrating attempts to find his baptism in the available records. Thanks to crucial clues provided by Pat and Roger Gardener, Hilda McLeod, Ann Rose, John Blows and Gerald Gardiner and the vast and detailed local history knowledge of Roz Lowe of Goodrich (whose information is shown in blue text) we have been able to put together a fascinating account of the scandalous events and colourful characters connected to the history of the Gardiners. We have also been helped (as well as hindered) by three important books – the Memoirs of Captain Henry Gardiner, the Memoir of the life of her father William by Mary Gardiner (Pages 2-3, Pages 4-5) and A Very Welsh Beginning which contains a memoir composed by Edward Jones in 1915 (Chapter 1 on Captain Gardiner).




Mary Anne Gardiner’s ‘Narrative’ and Capt. Gardiner’s Memoirs – essential sources for Gardiner History


The name James was quite common among Herefordshire Gardiners but some of those known are from places some distance from the Wye:


·              James, son of John and Jane baptised 12.12.1779 in Bishops Frome who married Lucy Brown (will proved 5.12.1807) and who died in 1831 aged 51

·              James son of Thomas and Ann, baptised 4.11.1787 in Shirenewton Monmouthshire

·              James son of Thomas Gardiner and Elizabeth Allen, baptised 12.3.1788 in Bosbury who married an Ann Grizzle.

·              A James Gardiner died in Byford in 1833 aged 21

·              And another in Coddington in 1836 aged 47


The James Gardiner born in 1779 in Bisley in Gloucestershire who married a Sarah there in 1804 cannot be the right man since he is recorded as having had children there (James and Henry!) in the 1820s. A James married a Sarah Yard in Oxford but we know no more about them.


Other instances were more relevant:


·              A James Gardiner buried a son in Whitchurch on 28.2.1641

·              James son of Richard and Elizabeth, christened 2.2.1817 in Whitchurch

·              James son of John and Sarah Gardner christened 14.3.1829.

·              A James Gardner, married to Harriet aged 60, was living at Doward Hill in his native Whitchurch in 1881, aged 66 - almost certainly they are the James and ‘Chlorlett’ (age 36 and 28) recorded there in 1851 and he may be the James baptised in 1817 but said in 1861 to have been born in 1813.

·              Another James aged 17 was living with his mother Sarah in Whitchurch in 1881.


These are probably connected in some way to James who went to Liverpool but it is significant that there are no known local instances of the name prior to his and it is now known that the likely source of the name was from his paternal grandfather James Hodges or his uncle of the same name. It may also be of significance that the name became more common in later years. We might also note that the name Henry was completely unknown among Gardiners.


The search was not helped by the failure to find any record of his wedding to Sarah or of a baptism record for his second son James.



Part I Chapter 1.1: Origins - Early Gardiners




The Earliest Herefordshire Gardiners


The homeland of the Gardiners, the Wye Valley, is a stunningly beautiful area straddling the counties of Herefordshire, Monmouthshire (then in England) and Gloucestershire. The area between the towns of Ross and Monmouth sees the river wind in a dramatic bend through the impressive setting of Symonds Yat (where Gardiners still run the ferry) and a couple of miles away are the villages of Whitchurch and Goodrich and the neighbouring parishes of Marstow and Walford. Not far off are Doward, Welsh Bicknor, Pencraig, Llangarron, Llangrove, Dixton, Ganarew and Staunton, some of which places play a part in the story. Whitchurch, on the main A40, has little of note today to detain the tourist – apart from its church of St. Dubricius with its Gardiner grave stones - but Goodrich is considerably more interesting. Apart from its church it is famous for its impressive castle (Godric's) dating from 1101 but rebuilt in the time of Edward I by William de Valence. The area as it was at the time James lived there is described by Heath in his book The Excursion down the Wye from Ross to Monmouth (1808). .




Left: The Wye Valley around Whitchurch (the Old Forge is marked)                                

Right: Goodrich Village


The earliest references to Gardiners in Goodrich (then spelt Gooddrygge) yet discovered are found in the list of Gardiner Probates and Admons Hereford 1407 to 1550 (along with Gardiners in Monmouth, Marstow and Newent):


·              Alice, William and their son Roger (1523)

·              John (1537)

·              William and son John (1540, 1547)

·              John, Johan and their son John (1547)


The earliest references in the parish records are a little later (all dates new style):


·              the baptism of Johanna Gardener by Ethelbarti (8.7.1558)

·              the marriage of Johanna Gardner to Johes Marten  (19.1.1562)

·              the burial of Anna Gardner (4.1.1563)

·              the marriage of Johes Gardner to Elizabetha Thomas (21.6.1563)

·              the baptism of Georgius Gardener by Johis (28.1.1564)

·              the marriage of Johes Gardner to Jane Hannis (6.2.1565)

·              the baptism of Robertus Gardener by Johis (24.11.1566)

·              the burial of Elinora Gardner (17.4.1569)

·              the burial of Jana Gardner (13.8.1570)


Some other early entries include (all dates new style):


·              the marriage of William Gardiner to Joan Jones (16.5.1585)

·              the marriage of Catherine Gardener to William White (17.11.1578)

·              the marriage of Jane Gardner to William Jones (7.2.1591)

·              the marriage of Marian Gardner to William Boughan (8.6.1608)

·              the baptism of Elizabeth on 27.4.1664 by Mergerett Gardiner. She may be the Mergerett who married William Clarke in 1677.


Roz has reconstructed a family tree of Goodrich Gardiners using probate records but it has not been possible to connect the people on it to the Gardiners of Whitchurch.


An Anne married George Bonner in 1729 but the next wedding recorded is that of Susanna to John Tummy in 1813 (followed by Penelope and Thomas Davies in 1815 and Thomas to Ann Ballinger in 1823, perhaps the Thomas baptised in 1792).


According to Gerald Gardiner and also Pat Gardener, there is a Gardiner or perhaps several buried in the nave of Goodrich church. Roz comments:


Gardiner and Vaughan tombs are mentioned by Duncumb as being in the 'bishop's chancel' (History of Herefordshire, Hundred of Wormelow p.62) as being mentioned by Heath in his 'Excursion from Ross to Monmouth’ 1st edition 1799. In fact, there is a very bad online version of Heath, and I cannot find that he does mention them, but then his remarks about the inside of Goodrich Church are missing too. I may be able to find one at Hereford Library. Duncumb then goes on to (p 64) give details of the Vaughan stones which are 'hidden under the chancel pavement', but there is no Gardiner mentioned. The stones are all 1680-1736. The Gwent FHS recorded the MIs outside and in the church, but there is no mention of any Gardiner memorials anywhere. I cannot think that they would have missed them if they were readable.


The 1831 Topographic Index to England records that a Mr. Gardner had left a bequest to the church at Goodrich. Roz explains:


The Gardiner Charity in Goodrich was set up in the 1600s, when a cottage and some land was left to the poor of the parish. It continued being administered by the church until it was sold to Sir Samuel Meyrick. The cottage still stands, stone-face but timber-framed inside.


It would be nice to think that this was a relative of Henry and James but at present we cannot go beyond mere possibility.


From the 1630s the number of baptisms in Goodrich declines significantly and after 1664 there were no Gardiners baptised in that parish until Henry in 1811. The family (assuming they are the same) seems to have moved the short distance to the neighbouring parish of Whitchurch.


In neighbouring Marstow two Gardiners are recorded – Roz writes:


Yesterday I made copies of Marstow PR from 1707 to mid 1800s, and the BTs from 1662 to 1707. It's a small parish so not too many. There were only 2 Gardiner refs; 1791: 24th April by Banns, Robert Gardner and Elizabeth Morgan both of this parish were married both signed names. witnesses Mary Morgan & Thos Jones.1792: 29 January. John son of Robert & Elizabeth Gardiner was baptised.


 Description: Description: Description: StDubricius200


Left: Aerial view of the Whitchurch-Goodrich area                                                      

Right: St. Dubricius, Whitchurch


In Whitchurch the earliest Gardiner records so far discovered are the baptisms of Eleanor (1634) and William (1635). The first burial was that of John by James and Johan (28.2.1641) followed by the first marriage, that of William to Mary Davis on 4.5.1641. A deed, dated 1658, seems to refer to this William:


1038 M/T/7/14  1658

Deed to declare the uses of a fine
1. William Gardyner the elder of Whitchurch, gent.
2. William Gardyner of Whitchurch, butcher, and Mary his wife
3. William Boughan of Brians, Goodrich, yeoman
4. William Gardyner the younger of Whitchurch, gent., son of 1.
5. Sibbill Weaver now of Whitchurch, widow of John Weaver, late of Marstow
Premises: closes of land, viz.: the Greate Gover containing ten acres, the Longe Close containing ten acres, the Greate Newfield containing fourteen acres, the Lesser Newfield containing eight acres, the Well Close containing six acres, the Litle Broome containing two acres, and half an acre lying in a field called Masebarren, in Llangarren and Whitchurch, to be conveyed by 1. to 4. to his use; one close of land called the Little Gover, and a parcel of land called Trebargell Orchard in St. Weonards, to be held by 4. and his heirs to their use; one messuage, garden and orchard adjoining in Brians, in the parish of Goodrich to be held by 3., his heirs and assigns; land in a close called the Keeven in Whitchurch, to the use of 5. and her heirs


I have a photo of this deed, but is long. Even more exciting, it has the signatures of the 3 William Gs.


One of these Williams may be the one Gardiner buried inside the church – William Gardiner a recusant who died in 1680. It may be his will that was written in 1673, though it should be noted that he made his mark on the document which may suggest either lack of education or, perhaps more likely given that he was obviously a well-to-do person, incapacity.


A number of Gardiners were buried in the churchyard: William (d1726), Mary (d1726), Margaret (Mrs) (d1730), Mary (Mrs) (d1747), Margaret (b1695, d1764), Edward (b1697, d1771).


One gravestone (A18) read:


‘… of Body of Mary, daughter of Giles Gardiner by Margaret His Wife who departed this life the 12th day of September [An Dni] 1726. … In memory of Mary the wife of Edward Gardiner who departed this life July ye 29th 1747’




‘…. Also in memory of Edward Gardiner Senr gent who departed this life ye 8th day of June 1771 aged 74 years’.


This seems to be the same memorial as that recorded as A19 which was transcribed as:


‘William son of Giles Gardiner by Margaret his wife who died 21 Sep 1726 and also in memory of Edward Gardiner sen gent ob 8 Jun 1771 aet’ 74’




Images of Gardiner graves in Whitchurch – A18 and A19 can be read but nothing is legible from the other two. The one in an oval cartouche seems to contain a significant amount of text.




There was also one for Edward Gardiner, gent, apparently from the 1700s but the last two digits were illegible (perhaps actually Z26).


Other memorials include:


·        Z18 Margaret wife of Giles Gardiner of this parish d 13 Aug 1730

·        Z87 Margaret Gardiner d 3 Nov 1764 aged 69

·        Z26 Edward Gardiner gent d 8 Jan 1802 aged 59

·        Z93 Sarah Gardiner dau of John & Anne Ballinger d 13 Mar 1836 aged 38 & above Anne Ballinger d 11 Apr 1858 aged 86

·        I22 James Gardiner The Green Whitchurch died 11 Apr 1895 aged 80 & also Charlotte his wife 11 May 1898 aged 56


·        S11 not copied


We are told by Mary (p1) that the Gardiners sold their estates in the civil war in order to raise money for Charles I (which would make sense if they were Catholics) and were rewarded by a letter from the King which the family kept for some time.  Despite backing the loser they still possessed an estate in Whitchurch where they lived after the Restoration.   


Roz comments:


I think there may have been some complications in how land passed through the family.


Although most of the Gardiner land is in Whitchurch parish (somewhere) and therefore normally in the manor of Goodrich, they had a piece of land in a field called the Govers field which was in the manor of Wilton-on-Wye. This manor was centred on Wilton over the bridge from Ross-on-Wye, but there was a detached portion called Little Wilton nearer to Goodrich, most of which was in the parish of Marstow. However, there were odd bits in the parish of Whitchurch …


Now it may be that the Edward who took over in 1680 was not the direct descendant of the Williams sen and jun, or that he was the ancestor of Edward G father of Edward d1802, but it is a starting point. The fact that the land seems to have descended down since 1668 shows a line of descent.


I will look in Whitchurch church at Edward's stone, if still there. I would have thought that the verse would have been mentioned, though.


In the Whitchurch parish records under the heading ‘Catalogus gardianovum’ we find listed:


·              1675: Thomas Gardyner

·              1676: Godfrey Gardyner

·              1680: Giles Gardyner

·              1685: John Gardyner

·              1687 Robert

·              1693 Giles

·              1697 Thomas White served by Jonas Gardyner

·              1699 Robert Gardyner

·              1702 John Gardyner

·              1708 John Gardyner served by Edward Richards

·              1709 John Gardyner

·              1711 Giles Gardyner by Charles Mainstone

·              1716 Giles Gardyner

·              1726 Robert Gardyner

·              1729 Edward Gardiner

·              1735 Robert Gardyner

·              1736 Edward Gardyner

·              1742 Edward and Robert Gardner

·              1750 Mr. Ed Gardyner and Robert Gardyner senr

·              1753 Robert Gardyner Junr for the Washings

·              1761 Robert Gardyner Senr

·              1765 Edward Tamplin served by R. Gardiner

·              1777 Mr John Dew served by Robert Gardener

·              1780 E. Gardiner

·              1786 Edward Gardener late Lucas’s

·              1792 Edward Gardner, the Plow

·              1795 Edward Gardiner, Washings

·              1799 Edward Gardiner for late Lucas’s


A list of ‘persons who ought to repair the walls and fences of the Church yard taken out of the book settled in the year 1697’ includes:


·              John Morris, William Chairs and John Gardiner – 19 feet

·              Mr. Gardiner – 17 feet


Not all the Gardiners in the area where well off or gentlemen; deeds exist from 1763 on which several Gardiners have left their mark rather than signing. These were Elizabeth of Whitchurch, widow of John   (yeoman), John of Pouroyd (labourer), Edward of Whitchurch (labourer) and Thomas of Marstow (labourer).


There were also Gardiners across the county boundary in Lydbrook, Gloucestershire. Roz, in her article ‘Field Meeting to Lydbrook & Ruardean, Gloucestershire’ tells us:


The owner [of the messuage called ‘Shepcot Place’] was John Gardiner, the Gardiner family having owned substantial lands in Lydbrook, English Bicknor and Esbage (Eastbach) back into the mid-16th century. In 1563 the Earl of Essex leased a water corn mill of Byckenor to another John Gardiner, but whether this was in Lydbrook isn’t known. (GRO D1677 528).


As far as the spelling of the name is concerned we can note the following:


·              Gardyner (Goodrich and Whichurch 1611-1768)

·              Gardiner (Goodrich and Whitchurch from 1613)

·              Gardener (Goodrich 1558-1673; Whitchurch from 1774)

·              Gardner (Goodrich 1562-1677, 1823-26; Whitchurch from 1779)


From c1768 the spelling Gardyner died out. The variants Gardener and Gardner are still found erroneously in records late in the 20th century!



Giles Gardiner and Edward Senior


The Gardiners had resided in Whitchurch for many years, ‘greatly regarded for integrity and hospitality’ according to Rev. James Birt who wrote a reference for William in 1803. A partial reconstruction of the family tree has been made by Pat and Roger using the Bishop’s Transcripts of the Whitchurch parish records. The originals were destroyed in a flood in the post war years (1947 or 1960) so were still there to be seen by Queenie and Lucy). From these they concluded that Aegidius (Giles) Gardyner and his wife Margaratta (Margaret) had some 13 children, from one of whom James was descended. They could not find any records for Giles but speculated that he was born in the 1650s and married before 1678. Giles Gardyner seems to have been the son of William since the ‘admon’ of 1684 explicitly states that he was. Perhaps his mother was the Mary Davis to whom a William Gardiner was married in Whitchurch on 4.5.1641 – though we might note that William the Butcher had a wife called Mary (see above).


Roz comments:


I am sure you're right about the Giles-> Edward (I) -> Edward (II) descent. My only caveat from looking at the manorial records was the fact that Edward seems to have ended up with the family property in Whitchurch even though he was far from the eldest.


A record (see below) Roz found allows us to be more precise: it gives the ages of Giles and his wife as 69 and 60 when their son William was 30. As William was born in 1680 this would seem to imply that the record was drawn up c1710 and so Giles was born c1641 and his wife c1650. However, Roz advises that:


The date of the record of the manorial survey giving the ages of Giles (69) Margaret (60) and William (30) is 1718, and the survey was taken then as we have the surveyor's dated expenses.


This would mean that Giles was born c1650 and William c1688 (which cannot be correct, rendering the information less than reliable) so rather than being born before the civil war Giles would have been a child when Cromwell was ruling England, a youth and young adult during the reign of the Merry Monarch (Charles II), was having children when the Glorious Revolution took place and lived to see Queen Ann succeeded by George I. Mary Gardiner (Memoir p1) refers to William’s ‘paternal great-grandmother’ as being Miss Kemys, who was related to Sir Nicholas Kemys, Bart., who was a Colonel of Horse and who died defending Chepstow Castle against Cromwell’s forces. Presumably Miss Kemys was Margaret, though William would, of course have had two paternal great-grandmothers. Her family was one of the ‘most ancient’ in Monmouthshire who had resided at Began and prior to that at Cefn Mably in Glamorganshire. Giles’ children were:


·        Elizabeth (1678)

·        Gulielmus / William (1680-1726)

·        Anna / Ann (1681)

·        Jana / Jane? (1683-bef. 1693)

·        Georgius / George (1684-1724)

·        Aegidius / Giles (1686-1726)

·        Margaretta / Margaret (1687)

·        Maria / Mary (1688-1726)

·        Johannes / John (1690)

·        Jana / Jane (1693-1710)

·        Margaretta / Margaret (1695-?3.11.1764, aged 69)

·        Edwardus / Edward: (14.9.1697-12.6.1771)

·        Sarah (1701-1701)


In those days they were still giving the Latin versions of Christian names. It is noticeable how many of these names recur through the generations: Henry (b1835) had children called Elizabeth Ann, George, Margaret, Mary, Edward and Sarah (though other explanations than Gardiner tradition can be given for some of them).


In 1707 Giles entered into an agreement to lease a number of properties including a water corn mill.


The records of Little Wilton Manor from the late seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth make a number of references to Giles and Edward Gardiner (Egidus is Giles, not Edward). Roz explains:


I have not found details of the transmission of the Gardiner land in my Goodrich manor records, as I've only had time to look at my photocopies, not my photo archive, which is huge, looking for a needle in a haystack. However, I do have extensive photocopies of the Wilton-on-Wye amorial records. This manor belonged to Guys Hospital for many years, and the records are at Hereford. See attached.


Every year, 'suitors' who held land directly from the lord had to come to manorial courts and pay homage. This was recorded, and also when it changed hands through families on the death of the owner this was recorded as the new owner had to pay a 'heriot' - usually the best beast.


An old record from 1725 has been found which refers to Giles, his wife and son - Roz explains:


I attach a 1725 agreement (in bundle HRO O68/I/16) where the lord of the manor sells or leases for 3 lives to Giles Gardyner for £11 a small piece of manorial land at a place called New Mill Hill, which is near a place called Old Forge. This was the land and a cottage he was already living in which was on an encroachment out the waste land between two roads. It gives the 3 lives as GG, Margaret G and William G. From another rental Giles was 69, Margaret his wife was 60 and his son William 30. In pencil on this it says 'sold to Gardiner'. This is not a long way away from Old Mill, which is further up the river Garron from the mill at Old Forge. … On the map attached the incroachedment rented then bought by Giles Gardiner has a little house, and the acreage given as 1-0-3. (These are Hereford acres which are different). The photo is the house as it was a few years ago. It had now been renovated and lost most of its character.


Roz comments further:


For example, in 1718 a Giles Gardiner leased from the lord of the manor a cottage and an acre of land at New Mill Hill Common, which is in fact very near Old Forge. The 3 lives of the lease in being were Giles (69) wife Margaret (60) and their son William aged 20 [30?] (none of whom I can find in the registers). It says on the entry in pencil 'sold to Gardiner', though which Gardiner we know not. I am doubtful that this is the house mentioned as the sale details say very particularly that it was the Old Forge house, and I know that the New Mill Hill cottage was in the ownership of the lord of the manor at the 1838 tithe map time. However, I also saw somewhere that the Griffins (lord of the manor) bought some property from Edward G. The Old Forge itself was in the ownership of the Powell family in 1838 but there is also a bigger house called Old Forge house - all very confusing. As we have the names of the tenants I may be able to confirm the name of the estate.




Photo of the house rented by Giles


1726 was clearly a tragic summer for the family: having probably lost George two years earlier (23.1.1724), on 25th July they buried Giles junior and less than two months later he was followed by Mary and William (15th and 21st  - burial 24th - September). Giles died in early 1729; he was buried on 6th February (‘affid 8th’) in Goodrich but his residence is given as Whitchurch and his status as ‘gent’. His wife survived him just over a year – she is the widow Margueritte Gardiner’ who was buried in Whitchurch, apparently on the 12th August 1730, though her gravestone suggests she only died the day after, on the 13th!  


Giles’ son Edward (Senior), a barrister-at-law, married a lady called Mary Hughes, possibly in 1729. Mary was the co-heiress of Richard Hughes, Esq., whose ancestors resided at Moyn’s Court near Chepstow and whose mother was of ‘the famous house of Morgan’ (Memoir, p1). They are thought to have had two sons – William, baptised in Whitchurch on 10th February 1743, and Edward, baptised 6.8.1744, also in Whitchurch. William may have died as an infant (burial 4.7.1743) or perhaps as a young man (1.1.1765). Mary was buried in Whitchurch on 29th July 1747, along side Edward’s sister, Mary. Her husband outlived her by 24 years, dieing at the age of 74 and being buried on 12th June 1771 in the grave of his brother William. He is described as a ‘gentleman’.


It has not been easy locating Edward’s residence or land holdings but Roz has been able to gather a few possible indications:


I have made some progress too in finding out about where Edward G was living. There is a note book by the rector, Daniel Renaud which covers 1740s to 60s. He has details of Mr Gardyner’s lands giving field names in Whitchurch, but I would caution against this being necessarily Edward snr, your Edward’s possible father, as in a summary of the estates, he says:


Mrs Tamplins The Pavings, G. Morgan and Robt Gardyner.


However, the names in the detailed lists of estate don’t match with the summary list, so they could be different people. In which case, it says:


Mr Gardyner’s Lands in Whitchurch

The Tracetters

Below the Pool

Part of New and Little field

Walshman’s Meadow

Orchard next the house

Before Chair’s

Pack House

Barley Close

Well Close

Jo. Kedwyn’s Land


As yet these properties remain unidentified.


We are also given the following information:


·        In 1752 Mr Gardyner paid 10/- on an estate valued £30 for relief of the poor

·        Robert Gardyner 1/6 on an estate of £4-10 value

·        1746, On a church note to collect £5, Mr. Gardyner paid 2s / 6d and Robert Gardyner 5d



Part I Chapter 1.2: Origins - Edward Gardiner




Edward Gardiner and Mary Hodges


The presumed father of James Hodges / Gardiner, Edward Gardiner, was, as we have said, the son of Edward Gardyner (gent) and his wife Mary. His age at his death in January 1802 was given as 59, suggesting he was born c1743, consistent with the date of his baptism of 6.8.1744. According to the Captain he was ‘bred to the law’ and understood it well but did not go into practice (Memoirs p4). Mary Ann confirms that many of the family were lawyers but Roz comments:


As for Herefordshire Gardiners as lawyers, I can't find them on this website, nor are there any I can find on the Gray's Inn register –





An entry in the Herefordshire Family History Society list of ‘strays’ reads:




According to one entry in the IGI Mary was born in 1744. Her parents are said to be William Tudman (born c1705 in Pilston) and Mary Perkins. Another entry gives a very different date – 1732 – but correctly gives her husband as Edward Gardiner. However, another IGI entry lists a marriage in Dixton Newton on 14.11.1740 between a Mary Perkins and a Benjamin Tudman and a third variant gives a baptism in Monmouth by this couple on 5.11.1741 - so the accuracy of these details remains uncertain.  The 1741 birth seems most reliable and precise. Mary’s mother seems to have been the daughter of Christopher Perkins and Mary Clarke and is said to have been baptised in Pilston, Monmouth on 2.10.1709 and to have died in 1796. Mary Tudman had a brother, William; the children were orphaned in infancy and brought up at Pilston, the residence of her wealthy aunt Perkins, formerly Miss Dean Smith, widow of Edward to whom she brought a fortune of £20,000 at her wedding in 1745 and who died two years later falling from his carriage on Trelleck Hill (Memoir pp7-8).


Mary, apparently a beautiful young lady, was from a high ranking and wealthy gentry family; her mother was a Perkins and a cousin, Edward Perkins of Penblaith (Llangarren, Herefordshire), left her £1000 in his will. The will seems to have led to a legal dispute with the other beneficiaries, members of the Eagles family (TNA: C 12/2164/5, Gardiner v Eagles, 1791).


Edward Perkins’s Will               


Roz has managed to uncover the details of this dispute in a document in the National Archives which she summarises thus:


So this case is because the £1000 had not been paid to Edward & Mary Gardiner, who in 1790 had passed this £1000 on to Wm Gardiner the later school teacher/writer. [This document is a single parchment sheet, and is a complaint which does not seem to have been proceeded with i.e. the threat may have been enough.]



Fuller Transcript of the Document TNA C 12 2164 5 Gardiner v Eagles


Complainants: Edward Gardiner of Whitchurch in Co. Hereford gent, his wife Mary and their second son William Gardiner of Lidney, gent.


Defendant: Thomas or William Eagles




The documents recites that Edward Perkins in his will made September 1770 left his estates to his mother Eleanor Green for her life and afterwards to his cousin Thomas Eagles [in original will Thomas should be son of William Eagles of the city of Bristol merchant] and to his heirs, and in default of heirs to be divided between Cecilia Eagles and Charlotte Eagles daus of the said William [sic] Eagles and his cousin Mrs Mary Gardiner wife of Edward Gardiner of Whitchurch in Co. Hereford gent. [this doc then omits the other legacies in the will, most of which e.g. to Cecilia and Charlotte are for £100, but to Mrs Mary Gardiner in the original PCC copy will is £1000] Also I give and bequeath to my said cousin Mrs Mary Gardiner (meaning your oratorix) the sum of one thousand pounds and the said testator appointed his mother Eleanor Green and James Bowen executors of his Will .. and the testator departed this life without in any manner altering or revoking his said will leaving the said Thomas Eagles eldest son of a deceased sister of the said Edward Perkins and your orator Mary Gardiner only child of another deceased sister his co-heirs at law  and your orators and oratrix show unto your lordship that the said Eleanor Green and James Bowen duly proved the said will in the proper Ecclesiatical Court and took upon themselves the Burthen of the Execution thereof And your orators and oratorix shew unto your lordship That by indenture bearing date the 11 June 1790 made between your orator and oratorix Edward Gardiner and  Mary his wife of the one part and your orator William Gardiner as therein described as second son of the said Edward Gardiner and Mary his wife of the other part reciting the said will of Edward Perkins the said Edward Gardiner and Mary his wife for the considerations therein mentioned Did grant bargain etc to William Gardiner your orator his execs assigns etc the said sum of £1000 bequeathed by the said Edward Perkins to the said Mary Gardiner and all sums of money due or to become due in respect of the said legacy such monies as might be due and to be received for interest from day of date of expiration of said Eleanor Green to the day of the date thereof etc etc


Although orators and oratorix have made frequent applications to the said Thomas Eagles for the said £1000 [and suggested that he should sell property if necessary] he has not paid them. etc. etc.






Whitchurch c1910 and c1955 – Edward’s property, Brook House, is the white building on the rightand t he Crown Inn where some of his estate was auctioned off is in the centre


Edward’s property in and around Whitchurch has been identified thanks to some impressive detective work by Roz (her full notes are given below). From the various notices in the Hereford Journal advertising his lands for sale we can see some of what he owned and by tracing the chain of occupancy it can be shown that he was the owner, if not the occupier, of Brook House in the centre of the village. This farm was still being referred to as ‘Late Gardiner’ in 1809. The table below shows how the property owned by Edward in 1775 and occupied by Thomas Jones can be identified as Brook House, the farm and the Washings. Fuller details of the properties Edward sold are given further on when his financial decline is described but it is clear that he had a number of fields, farms and houses in Whitchurch, Ross on Wye and neighbouring parishes in Herefordshire and Monmouthshire.





The Chain of Ownership and Occupancy of Edward’s Property in Whitchurch: Roz’s Notes


3. The Whitchurch Land Tax records The Land Tax was paid to the County (as modern rates) and Whitchurch ones are informative, showing both Owner and Occupier of property… From 1775 on Mr Gardiner appears as owner of a property worth £3.3s.9d, which will be shown to be Brook House. He also owns other minor property. At this time the occupier is Mr T Jones. There is then a period when I can’t see the dates, but fortunately the Rector of Whitchurch listed the tithes comprehensively in 1803 (HRO R62/1)


On the page of this I have given, there is an Edward Gardiner, whom I presume is the son of our Edward Gardiner at this date. The more interesting entry is on the same page, which is Mr Evans’s property in Thomas Jones’s hands.


The land tax resumes in 1809, when ‘late Gardiner’s’ is owned by Mr Evans and occupied by Mary Jones, her husband Thomas having died, payment, as before, £3.3s.9d. The property is still being called ‘late Gardiner’s’ until the late 1820s, with Mr Evans as owner and Mrs Mary Jones as occupier. Note that the Washings [Meadow] goes along with this ownership. By 1826 the property is still ‘late Gardiner’s’ but Mr Evans has died and his wife Ann is registered as owner, and Mr Thomas Jones has taken over from his mother Mary.


4. Mr [John] Evans’s will was proved in the PCC in 1823. He is just ‘of Whitchurch’, but on page 2 of his will he leaves the various houses [messuages] etc ‘which he purchased of Dr Cameron of Worcester’ to his nieces Elizabeth m Richard Hooper and Ann Robinson, with the proviso that his wife Ann should have the property for her life. [Dr. Cameron had bought the main property being sold by Edward in 1893.]


5. In the 1841 census Mrs Sarah Jones was in Brook Farm; Ann Evans was in another house on the same page. Thomas Hooper and wife Ann were at Brook House - maybe a relative of Elizabeth m Richard Hooper. As we see in the 1847 tithe map, there were two houses there. [They needn’t be on the same page in the census]


6. In 1843 a ‘freehold estate’ and also The Washings were advertised in the Hereford Journal for sale, ‘late in the occupation of Mrs Ann Evans deceased’. [I think she died later in 1841].


7. In 1846 Mrs Jones of Brook Farm retired and sold her stock.


8. In 1847 the Whitchurch tithe map was drawn, and from the tithe apportionment which was drawn up, William Allaway was the owner of Brook House and also of Washings [called Washlings]. [The apportionment is tightly rolled in the map, and to photograph it is very difficult. The owner’s name is on the left, the tenant’s next, then the number of the tithe map]


Note that I cannot find a document which records the transfer from Evans to Allaway. The Land Tax returns after 1830 are not filmed, but they may be in HRO as hard copy. This would confirm the transfer, but I’m quite comfortable with this being the sequence of events.


There are later sales of the property but I think I’ve done enough to link the sequence together.



Since someone else was occupying the property in 1775 we must assume that Brook House was not (then) Edward’s private residence; either it was simply part of his estate or he had been already forced to let it out and move elsewhere, perhaps to more modest premises. Sadly the house no longer exists having been one of the few houses in Whitchurch flattened by the dual-carriageway of the A40 but there are some pictures and an old barn has survived. The Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments noted in the 1930s: ‘Brook House, now two tenements, at the cross-roads 620 yards W. of the church, was built in the middle of the 17th century but has been added to and almost completely modernised. Inside the building, in the modern S.W. wing, is a reset staircase of c.1650, with moulded strings, twisted balusters, and square newels with ball finials and turned pendants’. The owner of the barn (now an MOT centre) has no old deeds but being a gentleman in his 70s or 80s:


can remember the older house well. This is the one with the staircase shown in the RCHME book. He says that when the houses were knocked down for the dual carriageway he thinks that it had been empty for a while as the last occupant, an elderly lady, had died.  His father had a repair business in the MOT barn, including a collection of old farm implements, but he also had saved the staircase when the house was knocked down. It hung around for a while but my contact does not know where or when it went. Apparently the highway authorities were very cavalier at that time, and the fact that the house was listed would have counted for nothing. A nice fact for you: he says that in the upstairs of the older part there was a three-hole lavatory! You're probably too young to remember these, but in my childhood we lived in more than one house where we had the same arrangement, though three holes sounds excessive. We had two holes, one for children. However, with the number of children from Edward Gardiner's activities probably they needed three.




The MOT centre was a barn attached to Edward’s farm in the centre of Whitchurch - the car park to the south of this was part of one of the two houses shown in red on the tithe map.


We know a little of Edward’s life and character thanks to two short biographical accounts. Captain Henry Gardiner in his Memoirs refers (anonymously and rather cryptically) to his father and in the introduction to a book of poems by Edward’s legitimate son William his daughter Mary Anne describes the scandalous events that affected his childhood (Poems, Songs and Essays with a Narrative of his Life by his Daughter London 1854: Pages 2-3    Pages 4-5).


Edward’s marriage is said to have increased his social standing and his income and in the mid-1760s he was living in ease and affluence on his paternal estate. The exact transmission of the Gardiner estate down the generations is not clear. As we have seen, Edward senior was not the eldest son of Giles but Roz comments:


However, it would seem from the manorial records etc that the descents from Giles's elder sons may have run out in the male line, and therefore the property reverted back to Edward [junior]. Of course, it is possible that he used Mary Tudman's money to buy the family property or a new one. There is however the continuity of land names from Edward (I) in Daniel Renaud's book to Edward (II) in the Hereford Journal advert.


In 1771 Edward Gardiner the Younger of Whitchurch was appointed as executor of the will of Robert Gardiner and his signature can be seen on the document. Roz summarises thus:


Will of Robert Gardiner of Whitchurch, blacksmith made 29 March 1771. Mentions house and blacksmith’s shop where his son Thomas lives. He leaves this to his eldest son Robert (wife Mary) for his life then to Thomas. Mentions grandson Robert.


Mentions his daughter Sarah Hodgins (definitely not Hodges) whom he gives the house where John Hodgins lives (presumably her son or husband [her husband, in fact]) and his granddaughters Susannah Hodgins and Sarah Llewellin. [This is quick summary - needs checking] Executor Edward Gardiner the younger of Whitchurch.


Robert was buried on 26th August 1771. There is obviously a family link between Edward and Robert; Robert’s father was Robert (snr) who died in 1715 and had seven (known) children, the first, Thomas, baptised 1680. The closest connection would be that Robert (snr) was Giles’ brother, making Edward the nephew of Robert (jnr). Since Robert was a blacksmith he may have regarded the wealthier and more gentlemanly Edward as an ideal executor rather than one of his own sons. 


Edward and Mary had a son, Edward, baptised on 13th April 1765, followed by William (17.4.66), Mary (22.7.67), Richard (26.2.69), George (13.8.71), an Elizabeth and perhaps a Jane, daughter of Edward and Mary Gardener, whose death is recorded in Whitchurch in 1774 (October 19th). According to his granddaughter (Narrative, p2), the couple had six children, four boys and two girls but according to Gerald Gardiner Edward actually had seven (legitimate) children: if Jane died very young Mary Ann may not have been aware of her. Why the two girls were not baptised in Whitchurch is unknown. While an infant, young Edward was, apparently, stolen by gypsies and, a reward having been offered, returned by one of the women who refused to accept it. This seems to have later been taken as a reason for him ending up insane (Mary Gardiner, Memoir p35). Edward is said to have given the boys a liberal education but not the girls. This was, allegedly, because they were younger and by that time his fortunes had taken a turn for the worse; in fact this cannot be quite accurate as Mary was born before Richard and George (we do not know when Elizabeth was born).


Edward is portrayed by Mary Ann as a cruel parent who would punish his sons for the most minor offences by shutting them up in a garret without food and forcing them to learn Latin collects. Their father’s kindly huntsman would supply them with bread and cheese, passed up to the window on a pike. The Captain presents so entirely contrasting a picture that it was difficult to credit that he is describing the same man: his father had ‘manners, education and estate’ as befitted a gentleman and was warm, generous, open, sincere, intelligent, beloved by the middle ranks, respected by the great and idolized by the poor, a peacemaker and universal friend. His wise advice was, apparently, widely sought and his heart ‘suggested rules of probity and honour’. Even in adversity his ‘religious fortitude of soul’ would not permit him to fall into despair. The decline in his circumstances was down to bad luck according to the Captain; the ‘blind goddess’ in a most grotesque and subtle form ‘blasted his endeavours’ and a ‘wonderful concatenation of events’ drove him from ‘affluent fortune’; to ‘absolute want’. Mary Ann has a rather different take on what happened: his problems were, we are told, down to his reprehensible and immoral life and awareness of this dreadful development is said to have left a lasting impression on the sensitive young William. The Captain tells us that while the ‘elder branches of the family’ received a classical education, owing to Edward’s ‘misfortunes …many of the younger branch were obliged to be employed in immature years’ – including himself.


It is likely that Edward’s relationship with Mary Hodges was at the root of the problem. Mary’s parents may be the James and Mary Hodges we find in Monmouth. On 13th July 1748 a James Hodges from Aukfield (?)  married Elizabeth Clarke from Monmouth at Staunton by Monmouth in Gloucestershire, not far from the Monmouth bridge over the Wye. The parish records for Monmouth show a number of Hodges baptisms to parents James and Elizabeth, presumably the same couple:


·        James in 1749 (26 June)

·        William in 1750 (2 October)

·        Thomas in 1751 (22 September)

·        Mary and Michael in 1753 (14 November).

·        Another Mary (Hodgis) was baptised 26 Jan 1757.


Mary, daughter of James and Elizabeth, was buried on 19 May 1754, Michael, son of James and Elizabeth, was buried 6 Feb 1755 and a John, son of James and Elizabeth, was buried 19 Feb 1755 but there is as yet no baptism record for him. The baptism in 1757 for Mary is consistent with a death aged 85 in 1840 (see below). Furthermore, the Captain’s uncle who owned the silver mine may well have been one James Hodges. Mary’s father James was a victualler and according to his wife’s burial record (Monmouth, 17th July 1769) their residence was 'The Bridge', an inn near the river Wye. The original inn building was knocked down in the late 19th century, and replaced by a towered building. This in turn was demolished when the A40 dual carriageway was pushed through (Roz). James probably died in 1781 or 1785 (he was certainly dead by the time Edward Gardiner wrote his will).


Roz has uncovered a number of intriguing possible links between Gardiners and Hodges which suggest that the relationship between them may be more complex than simply a case of a rich man and his impoverished ‘bit on the side’. A document dated 1768 from Glamorgan Record Office, possibly concerning the financial aspects of Edward’s wedding, was witnessed by a John Hodges and a P[hilip] Hodges. We cannot be sure they were relatives of Mary but it must be a possibility. Roz speculates with regard to them:


We've been thinking that maybe Edw G met Mary Hodges when he visited Monmouth, but maybe she was visiting Philip Hodges (d 1780, of Whitchurch)? It seems as if Philip was friendly with the Gardiner family, so she could have come to stay if Philip was a connection. The reason is that I think it must have taken more than a fleeting occasion for Edw G to have become so infatuated that he risked everything to start a romance with her. However, the Hodges connection is probably not nearer than James Hodges from Monmouth and Philip Hodges being cousins.


We can also note that Mrs Hodges was originally Miss Clarke and that Mary Tudman had a cousin called Jane Clarke. A Mary Hodges of Monmouth is found in Goodrich, marrying (by licence) John Fryer on 20th April 1775 (she signed, he put his mark, witnesses John Lucas and Jane Hodges) – what if any link there is to Edward’s mistress is unknown.


FRYAR, John                       Marriage

                 Wife: Mary HODGES            

                 Marriage Date:     20 Apr 1775        Recorded in:       Goodrich, Hereford, England


A John Fryer is known to have been married to Elizabeth – they had a daughter Sarah baptized in Goodrich in 1760 and several other children in Goodrich. Elizabeth was buried on 17th September 1795 and a year later (10th august) John was buried – he had drowned in the river Wye. No record of any children baptized by a John and Mary has been found.


At some point Edward and Mary began having children, perhaps starting in the mid 1770s when Henry was probably born, though his use of the phrase ‘elder branches’ might imply more than one distinct set of children before himself (Memoirs p7). Mary Ann tells us that Edward persuaded his wife, Mary Tudman, to move out for a ‘change of air’ so that he could move in a ‘disreputable woman named Hodges’. The exact date of this is not given: Mary Tudman was still young and the two eldest sons were at school. William was not yet 17 and since he was born in 1766 and his brother in 1765 it must have been before 1783, and probably well before as the impression is that they were still children (‘young and inexperienced’) and it is explicitly stated that Edward’s immorality was noted by the boys at ‘an early age’. No legitimate children are recorded after 1771. However, in 1783 Mary Hodges was described in the parish records as a ‘pauper’ so the exact sequence of events cannot be known. Mary Hodges’ presence in the house was so unwelcome to the two boys that they gathered their pocket money and a few silver spoons and ran away to London only to be fetched back by the constable of Whitchurch who found them in a filthy lodging house. That Edward could send the constable on a personal errand of that nature suggests that he enjoyed considerable authority in the village.




The former Swan and Falcon Inn in Ross on Wye from the street and showing the passage way to the inner courtyard- scene of the public auction of Gardiner property in 1783


It is possible to get some idea of Edward’s downfall from a series of notices in the Hereford Journal starting August 1782. It is clear that he was already in very serious financial difficulty by that point as on August 22nd a notice appeared informing readers that several freehold estates ‘situate in the counties of Hereford and Monmouth’ were to be sold by private contract or, failing a sale within six weeks, by public auction at the Swan and Falcon in Ross. The properties included a substantial and well-built messuage (land for a dwelling house together with its outbuildings, curtilage, and the adjacent land appropriated to its use) and dwelling house in Whitchurch with outbuildings and an orchard (about eight acres) reserving the Meese-place, which gives right of common to the Dowards, Long-grove and Old-grove; a field called Pool Relick (8 acres) in Whitchurch and Ganerew; Hendre Vach (5.5 acres) in Llangarren; a dwelling in Ross (rent £1 14s per annum); two houses in Ross (rent £2 pa); a house and garden at the Old Forge in Goodrich (rent £7 pa); part of a farm of 200 acres of arable and pasture with barns and outbuildings and woods in Llanvihangel-Yftern-Llewern on the Monmouth-Abergavenny road, five miles from Monmouth (rent £50 pa). The first three properties were described as having been ‘late in the possession of Mr. Edward Gardiner’ to whom inquiries could be addressed in Whitchurch or alternatively to his attorney Mr. Cameron at Munderfield Harold, Bromyard.  Roz informs us that the same adverts would often be run for two or three weeks in succession. Clearly the properties were not sold privately as on March 25th of the following year a notice appeared in the Journal advising that on April 24th at the Swan-and-Falcon they would be put up for public auction. Mr. E. Gardiner is described as the proprietor and fuller details are given of some of the lots (and an additional one, the Washings at Hoarwithy in Whitchurch which allowed salmon fishing on the Wye). The description of the main property in the village is especially interesting. It was a residence fit for a gentleman with two kitchens, two parlours, two halls, a servants’ room, pantries, cellars, sex bed chambers, four garrets, garden, stable, ox-house, cyder-mill house, pig sties and malt house. It lay near a stream on the Monmouth to Ross turnpike and a few hundred yards from the Wye and had nine acres of orchards with cyder apple trees.


A year later another notice (dated 27th March 1784) appeared in the Journal concerning the sale of an ‘exceedingly convenient’ mansion house and farm ‘commodiously situated’ in good sporting country near the Wye in Whitchurch with 210 acres and rights of common currently in the possession of E. Gardiner and his undertenants. The lawyers handling the case were now Messrs. Bourne or Guest of Hereford. This advert reappeared in the edition of May 6th.


In March 1785 Edward, who was still living in Whitchurch, placed a notice in the Journal advertising his services as a potential steward. He described himself as a freeholder of good connections aged 40 (he was actually a year or so older) capable of superintending estates, holding court leets, and understanding agriculture and timber and fishing. He was willing to work for any nobleman, lady or gentleman anywhere in England, Scotland or Ireland (even as deputy to a land steward) and came ‘well recommended for sobriety and honesty’. He appears to be offering his service on the basis that if there is no improvement to the estate within the agreed time he would only require board and travelling expenses. He added that he had a son educated in Latin, French and Merchant Accompts who could assist him or could be employed in a bank or as a teacher to a private family at home or abroad.


In February 1786 the farm had still not been sold (there was a new attorney involved) and the October 5th edition of the Journal announced that it would be put up for auction at the King's Arms in Ross on the afternoon of Thursday 26th October.


In September 1787 Edward Gardiner of Whitchurch Esq. was listed among those who had obtained a certificate (on two guinea stamps) for the killing of game during the next twelve months.


Some clue as to the parlous state of Edward’s finances may be found in an advert in the Hereford Journal for May 1st 1793. Roz was inspired to look in that publication having seen a legal bill from his solicitor (document O68/Misc/8) which mentions a sale of his property (Roz).


Roz summarises:


Basically, Edward Gardiner started mortgaging his property very early on. So, the case is about default on successive mortgages which were passed from person to person, the sum increasing all the while, ending with the Ingrams of Worcester. The earliest was before 1775 as this was when Edw G borrowed from Geo Catchmayd. Then the mortgage was transferred to John Philpotts and so on via Charles Cameron until it ended with the Ingrams, who took him to court.


It's quite clear that from the 1770s onwards, Edward G was getting the mortgage transferred to new people on a regular basis, increasing the money each time, but also it appears that he wasn't paying the interest either, using the new loan to pay it off.


It's significant that his wife's name (Mary T) is included each time, because she had an interest in the property as it was part of her jointure. I'm surprised that although Ed could do what he liked with the property as the Married Woman's Property Act was way in the future, Mary allowed this to happen when obviously the reason he needed the money was the steadily increasing brood. I presume he also had to fund an establishment for her. He must have had some income from his property. By the time of the sale, the mortgage and outstanding interest was considerable. 



A fuller transcript of the Taylor’s rough notes of Taylor TNA E 219 382 Ed Taylors material on Ingram v Gardiner                                                           



To the rt Honble


Between Francis Ingram (since deceased) and Richard Ingram Esq plaintiffs and Edward Gardiner and Mary his wife Wm Mathews esq Edward Gardiner the ygr Rd Gardiner Wm Gardiner Geo Gardiner Mary Gardiner & eliz Gardiner defendants


In pursuance of the Decree made upon the hearing of this case bearing date the 8th July 1790 whereby it was referred to me to take an account of the Principal money and Int. due to the Plts upon their mortgages in the pleadings of this cause mentioned and also an account of the Rents and Receipts of the mortgaged income received by them and to tax them their costs of this suit and to enquire whether any and what part of the mortgaged premises were held in ancient demesne and to cause one or more advertizement or advertizements to be published in the London Gazette for the sale of the said mortgaged premises and also in pursuance  of an order made in this cause dated the 20th November 1798 Whereby it was ordered that I should make a separate Report of the Principal Int and costs remaining due to the Plt Richard Ingram as the surviving Trustee named in the marriage settlement of Chas Cameron Bachelor of Physic and Mary his wife in the pleadings of this Cause named and of the said Chas Cameron’s purchase of Lot 3 part of the said mortgaged premises  I humbly certify that I have been attended by the Clks in court and Solicitors for all the parties and in this instance? have proceeded to take an account of the Principal and Int. due to the plts upon their mortgage securities in the



pleadings of this cause mentioned And I find that by indenture of ? or mortgage bearing date 19 January 1781 between John Philpots of the first part the defts Edward Gardiner and Mary his wife of the 2d part Charles  Cameron Batchelor of Physic and Ann his wife of the 3rd part and Plts of the 4th part reciting an indenture of mortgage by assigment dated 25th March 1775 between George Catchmayd of the first part the said Defts Edward Gardiner and Mary his wife of the 2nd part and the said John Philpots of the 3rd part whereby it is witnessed that in consideration of £1075 paid by the said John Philpots to the said George Catchmayd in full for principal and int. then due to him from the said deft Edward Gardiner upon mortgage of a capital messuage and divers lands tenements etc in the parishes of Llangarren Whitchurch & Peterstow in the Co Hereford - the said Geo Cathmayd assigned and the said defts Edward Gardiner and Mary his wife for the considerations aforesaid and of £525 to them paid by the said John Philpots which being added to the said sum of £1075 made the sum of £1600 granted and confirmed to the said john Philpots his executors etc all and singular the said capital messuage and lands etc for the residue of a term of 500 years therein mentioned


p2 back (repeat)




an ? of £228 by him paid to the said defts EG & M hw


[top of next page has crossed out section but I have typed it]


All which premises were situated in the parishes Whitchurch Llangarron Peterstow  Gannerew Ross and Goodrich in co Hereford .. to hold the said capital messuage cottages etc to the sd John Philpotts to his assigns etc. for a term of 1000 years subject ot redemption upon payment of the said £1600 and Int. after the rate of £4.10 per cent .. and also reciting an indenture if mortgage bearing date 29 September 1776 made between the said defts EG and M hw and the said John Philpotts whereby the said mortgaged premises were charged with the further pricipal sum of £200 and Int. for the same rate and also reciting an indenture bearing date 29 Sept 1778 between the said parties whereby in consideration of £1872 due to the said John Philpotts for principal and interest and by £228 paid by him to the said defts EG & M hw the said mortgaged premises were charged with and became a security to the said John Philpots for the principal sum of £2100 with lawful int. and also reciting an indenture bearing date the 18 April 1778 between the said Chas Cameron of the first part Ann his wife of the second part and plts of the 3rd part whereby in consideration of a marriage then intended and which had since been solemnized between the said Chas Cameron and Ann his wife it was agreed that the sum of £2500 therein mentioned should stand in the names of the Plts upon the


Page 4 (number at bottom)



The advert for the sale referred to a freehold estate to be peremptorily sold on Monday 27th May 1793 between 4pm and 7pm pursuant to a decree of His Majesty’s Court of Exchequer. There were ten lots, situated in Ganerew, Whitchurch, Goodrich, Ross and Llanfihangel, all occupied by tenants. Of these lots, lots 1, 5, 6, 7, and 9 were certainly among those being advertised ten years ago in 1782 and lot 3 (a mansion in Whitchurch) and lot 8 (unoccupied house in Ross) may well have been; it had obviously not been easy disposing of the family properties. Roz tells us further:


1. In 1793 Edward Gardiner is forced to sell his property because of the amount outstanding on his mortgage, which sale was demanded by the court of Exchequer. The notice of the sale appears in 1793 May 1st in the Hereford Journal (and other dates). Brook House is not named (it is Lot 3) but another important lot is 2, Washing Meadow, which travels with Lot 3 through various owners


2. Also in 1793, there is a bill for costs from Samuel Turner, a solicitor, to Edward Gardiner which was incurred in the sale of Gardiner’s property from the decree in the case of Gardiner v Ingram (HRO O68/Misc/8). The item for the 28th May 1793 on page 1 says ‘Attending at Mr Lewis’s Chambers a meeting with you Mr Wells and Mr Lewis by appointment upwards of an hour on the Biddings and on a treaty for sale of Lot 3 purchased by you to Dr Cameron. Also see page 2.


The Old Forge was said to be occupied by P. Davis, possibly a relative of the husband of Penelope Hodges / Gardiner. Edward should have had something left over from the sale etc when all was completed. He may have rented a property but that's difficult to find out. There were no reports in later editions of sale prices reached (Roz) but these are given elsewhere and we see that he bought back some of the lots such as the house at Old Forge.


Lot        Price               Buyer


1            £220              George Griffin (lord of the manor of Goodrich)

2            £290              Ditto

3            £3900            Dr Cameron

4            £70                Wheeler Parry (witness of Ed Gardiner's second marriage, I think)

5            £145              Geo Griffin

6 to 10    £60               Edward Gardiner

11          £945    David Morgan

12           £63               ditto



It did not stop there, as in these rough notes there is Taylor's final (draft) summing up of the financial situation in 1799, when some of the property had been rented out [and] the latest figures of income and amounts due is 1799 … after the judgement Taylor seems to have carried on managing the case [and] It may be that if the Mary G (died Lydney 1799) is the right one, her death finally put an end to the financial affairs and the matter could be closed. It is interesting that Philip Davies appears to be renting the house on New Mill Hill in Goodrich. It is still possible that the usual papers of the case are in TNA, but they probably won't add to these rough notes. (Roz)


The perceptive young William could see the decline in his father’s fortunes reflected in the condition of his hounds and composed one of his first poems on the subject but Edward did not appreciate the satire and confined poor William to the garret for the rest of the day. When William was 17 (1783, the year that the parish records show Mary Hodges as a pauper) he returned home but the moral atmosphere of the house was ‘ill-adapted to his sensitive and contemplative mind’. Edward could not afford to train William as a lawyer and out of ‘selfish pride’ he rejected the offer of his wife’s cousin Jane Clarke of the Hill (a rich local lady) to pay the expenses. Aware of the state of his father’s affairs William sought a position as a clerk. William decided to leave the home now ‘profaned by the presence of a numerous and illegitimate offspring’ (Narrative p5). This fits with the Captain’s statement that he left his father’s mansion but his Memoirs suggest, perhaps not entirely accurately, that he had been living there well before the mid 1780s and had already gone to sea some years previously. Whatever the case, there was clearly some resentment on the part of at least one of the legitimate children against those born out of wedlock and we do not find any of the legitimate Gardiners as (identifiable) subscribers to Henry’s Memoirs. Mary (Memoir p6) comments that Edward had ‘driven [William] and his family as wanderers into the great world’. Three of those sons were to come to unfortunate ends.


Edward, described as ‘the elder, Gentleman of Whitchurch’ made his will in 1785. In this will he provides for his six legitimate children but also makes provision for Mary Hodges and for the education of her offspring.  He also refers to the £1000 left to his wife by Edward Parkins (sic) Esq. of Penbleath..


PCC Will of Edward Gardiner, Gentleman of Whitchurch, Herefordshire proved 13 April 1802

PROB 11/1372


Abstract of will on Herefordshire wills site


GARDINER, Edward - the elder of Whitchurch, made 17 Nov 1785.
William MATTHEWS of Burton, Esq.; my eldest son Edward GARDINER; his mother Mary GARDINER; my sons and daurs William, Mary, George & Elizabeth GARDINER; their brother Richard GARDINER; 1000£ deviced to my wife by Edward PARKINS late of Penbleath, Esq.; Mary HODGES daur of James HODGES late of Monmouth, victualler.
[Proved 13 Apr 1802 - PCC/1802 #277; Ref FHL#155941]



We find in the Whitchurch parish records that Mary Hodges (still a spinster) baptised no fewer than 10 children, six on the 20th September 1795 the first named of which was James.


Mary’s Children


19 Oct 1783 Jane, illegitimate daughter of Mary Hodges, pauper

10 Oct 1784 Ann

27 July 1786 Amy

20 June 1790 Penelope

20 Sept 1795 James Sarah Faith Edwin Harriet Susanna


Roz has conjectured that the children baptised in 1795 may have been born at fairly equal intervals between 1787 and 1795. This is quite plausible and the order the children are named in might have been thought to indicate the order of age except that we know that Faith was born on 1st June 1794.  Why Penelope was baptised in 1790 is not known – perhaps she was a sickly infant and there was a risk of imminent death, though that still does not explain the delay with the others. It also leaves open the possibility that James may have been born before Jane, though a delay of nearly 15 years seems excessive (though not unparalleled). There is no sign of a Henry and since we are told by both the Captain and Edward Jones (see below) that Edward had 27 children we still have another 9 to account for. The Charity Hodges buried in Whitchurch on December 11th 1791 may or may not be a relative.


Between 1793 and 1795 Edward’s affairs had become considerably worse and the patrimonial estates at Whichurch (settled on Mary Tudman at her marriage) had been disposed of, her consent having been obtained by ‘threats and promises’, so robbing his children of their birthright (Mary Gardiner’s Memoir p16). At some time around 1796-7 Mary (Tudman) died, suddenly in Monmouth – she had previously been very ill to the extent that no one expected her to recover; her son William (to whom, in Baltimore, she appeared on the night of her death, wearing a blue mantle and cold to the touch) had the following epitaph placed on her headstone (sadly defaced and thrown aside in the 1850s):


The morning of her path was brightened with sunshine

The evening of her days was clouded with bitterness’


(Clearly neither the Mary Gardiner buried in Whitchurch on July 26th 1793 nor the Mary Gardiner who died in February 1799 aged 70 in Lydney is her.)


The transcript of Whitchurch parish registers records the marriage of Edward Gardiner and Mary Hodges on 10 June 1799; however, there is a record in a separate register of Marriages, when the witnesses were Wheeler Parry and Jane Weare, which gives the date as 10th May.  (An Edward Gardiner was in fact churchwarden that year, a fact that may or may not be related to the error.) Edward does not seem to have rewritten his will to take account of his first wife’s death and his subsequent remarriage. If his assets had been seriously depleted he may have seen little point. The repercussions of the case against him were still on-going and his solicitor still dealing with the case.


The continuing financial problems Edward was experiencing can be seen from a notice in the Hereford Journal of 29th October 1800. Yet more of his properties were to be auctioned off – the Little Kiln House, Bridge Meadow, The Moors and various other parcels of arable and pasture in the Whitchurch area. The sale was to take place on October 25th at the Crown Inn in Whitchurch itself.


After Edward and Mary Hodges married the illegitimate children might have taken his surname, if not before. Since it seems unlikely that Edward would provide for Mary’s children if they were not his, and equally unlikely that he would cohabit with and then marry a woman who had had ten children by other men, and since at least some of the Hodges children became Gardiners later we must assume that Edward was the father of them all and the Narrative implies as much. The Captain indicates that he signed a letter to his mother ‘Henry Gardiner’ in 1792. None of them has been found in the IGI or censuses as Hodges, though that is not conclusive of anything. That the Hodges children became Gardiners is seen in the cases of Susanna (married Goodrich 1813), Penelope and Faith (see below) as well as James (and probably Henry) and is consistent with the record of Jane Gardiner in Liverpool in 1841 and her possible origin in Monmouth in 1783 (assuming she is James’ sister).


Edward did not live long to enjoy his newly legitimated relationship. He died in Goodrich on the 8th and was buried in Whitchurch on the 11th of January 1802; in his will he had indicated his wish to be buried in the chancel of the parish church at Whitchurch. As to whether he got his wish, Roz writes:


The will certainly says that he wishes to be buried in the chancel, but I think this was more expensive that an outside burial, so it may not have happened …


However, I have looked again at Duncumb's History and he records a gravestone on the north side of the church which says: 'Edward Gardiner gent. ob. 8 Jan. 1802, aet. 59'. But these may be just Duncumb's words, though he usually puts extra information if it is there.


The 1983 survey of the monuments in the churchyard and the church seems to be thorough - there are even little sketches of the gravestones. Edward's gravestone does not appear in the survey, and is included in a list of a number of others which they note at the end of the survey were present in Duncumb's time. The floods may have been violent enough to break them up or carry them away.


Where the epitaph recorded by the Captain as being ‘inscribed on his monument’ is to be found is unknown as there is no evidence of it in that church:


Henry Gardiner’s epitaph to his father


Lost to his

Orphans, he is

For ever gone : and to

His country lost, in the

Most rude and rugged paths of

Life; a father kind he was, by pity

Moved, mild, placid, and serene; meeting

The strange vicissitudes of fate, as do the

Stationary shores of Artick Ocean, meet the keen

Blast of inhospitable regions, for his great soul well stored

was with philosophy divine; shall we then mourn as

Those without hope? ah no! we have hope, a sublime

Hope, more firmly fixed than is the pond’rous

Rock within the bowels of the earth

Confined, and obedient are

To thy command, O God;

As     our      vast

Globe which in

her orbit



Of his earlier fortune he had only £3000 left, which he divided among his legitimate children. Regarding his will, Roz comments:


Edward Gardiner's will from 1802 was invalidly executed. Mary (nee Hodges) who executed it was not the Mary his wife named as executor in the will which was made in 1785 - she was Mary Tudman his first wife. This is made quite clear in the probate record at the bottom for 1802 where Mary Gardiner actually claims to be formerly Mary Hodges, and since it mentions Mary Hodges explicitly in the 1785 part of the will, I cannot imagine how the will was proved. The 1785 part mentions Mary Hodges' children (she had been a spinster).



The clear reference to Mary (Hodges)


What happened to Mary (Hodges) immediately after Edward’s death is unknown. Her grandson Edward Davies states in his will that his maternal grandmother had bought a house at 30 St. Mary’s Street in Monmouth. It is a three storey terraced property if it is the property still at that address. A  Charles Howells and his family lived in the house according to the 1841 census but he must have been a tenant rather than the owner.




The house now at 30 St. Mary’s Street the white, three storey building)


What is clear is that at some point she went to live with or near her daughter Penelope Davies and her granddaughters in Mayhill, Dixton (a separate parish just across the Wye bridge, between Monmouth and Ganarew / Whitchurch) and to have helped them in the running of the school there (see below). She died aged 85 on 1st March 1840 in Dixton from age and debility. She was described as a schoolmistress and the death was reported by Susanna Davies who was present at her passing. She was buried in Monmouth on the 7th and in the Monmouthshire Beacon of the same day [Saturday], the following death notice appeared: On Sunday last, at Mayhill School, Mrs. Mary Gardiner aged 85 (her name is given as Gardner on the death certificate and burial record). Her age would be consistent with a birth c1756. There is as yet no sign that she left a will.



Edward’s Legitimate Children after his Death



Edward (born 1765)


It is interesting to note that Edward junior was a mariner. The elder sons are said to have had a classical education and only the ‘younger’ ones forced to go to work when young so one would have expected the eldest son to have inherited the estate and to have lived like a gentleman in Herefordshire. However, his father’s financial embarrassments forced Edward and William to ‘drudge as two common clerks’ and later he became a mariner. Quite how lowly a profession the term ‘mariner’ implied is not known but it does not sound especially elevated. It was thought that he was the Edward who married Sarah Kayse (Kaeyse or Keyce) in Whitchurch on 7.8.1792 had a son Edward Lucas (baptism 7.1.95) but the fact that he put a mark in the marriage register almost certainly means it was not his marriage. 


The late Jane Clarke had left the bulk of her wealth to Messrs. Kingsmill, Evans and Eagles (and not a small sum to her steward), thus disappointing the Gardiner brothers who had some expectation of a substantial inheritance. Jane Clarke, who was, as we have said, related to Mary Tudman through her mother’s mother, was born in 1710, the daughter of Mr. Joseph Clarke, Mary’s great uncle, and possessed of an income of many thousands per year. She made her will on 14th August 1802 and bequeathed to:


Mr Edward Gardiner, Mr William Gardiner, Mr Richard Gardiner, Mr George Gardiner, Miss Mary Gardiner, Miss Elizabeth Gardiner,  sons & daughters of the late Edward and Mary Gardiner of Whitchurch, £100 a piece, but if any of them quarrel with the will they shall lose their £100.


Roz tells us:


There was a Codicil 4 Aug 1803 and an Additional note 4 Mar 1806:


£100 left to Mr Richard Gardiner to be shared among [the other siblings]. If any other of them die before her their £100 should be divided between them.


The will was proved on 29th August 1806 (HRO F8/II/526) and there is a record of an Assignment by Edward Gardiner of Whitchurch and then of co. Surrey, mariner, of legacy under will of Jane Clarke dec


Roz was puzzled as to why the Gardiner children should have any desire to contest the will:


However, looking at the full Jane Clarke will, she does leave property (via trustees) to Thomas Eagles of Bristol, and after his death the income from them to his son Edward then to Edward's brothers and sisters in order of seniority. (This goes on for pages). There is the Eagles relationship with the Gardiners, that Thomas Eagles along with Mary Gardiner (nee Tudman) was a beneficiary of Edward Perkins of Penblaith, but since this Clarke money went directly to the Eagles I can't see why the Gardiners should think they were entitled to a share. Jane Clarke obviously thought the Tudman Gardiners merited something, i.e. £100, but she quite specifically said they would lose it if they contested the will, so perhaps she thought they might have a case. Whether they did pursue it I don't know.


The claim seems to have been based on the fact that Edward was her closest living relative. Clearly Jane had no intention of leaving anything to Edward’s many other children! 


In 1806 Edward began legal proceedings to recover what he saw as his rights from the estate of the late Jane Clarke but left the country before it was decided and was never heard from again. Roz informs us that:


Edward Gardiner, eldest son of EG died 1802, assigns his legacy from Jane Clarke to someone else. [The document] is too big to scan, but he seems to be selling the leacy for £60 in 1807, which implies he had not got it at this stage, and his [sic] does repeat the bit in the will about not getting it if the will is contested. £40 is a heavy discount, so he must have been worried about whether he would get it. Perhaps he was about to go abroad and wanted cash in hand.


It had been thought that he might have been the Edward who died in Whitchurch on 11.1.1807 but we know from Mary’s Memoir (p58) that Edward died either abroad or in an asylum




William (born 1766)


We know quite a bit about William thanks to the fact that he was a published author and had a daughter (Mary Ann) who composed a Memoir or Narrative of his Life to accompany a collection of his poems. Two brief biographical notices give some basic information:



GARDINER, William, [b. at Whitchurch, Herefordshire, Apr. 16, 1766; commenced his education at Mr Donne's school at Bristol ; clerk in an office at Lydney, c. 1783-90; kept a school at St. Briavels, 1803 ; and at Lydney, 1804-16 ; d. May 18, 1825. There are seven works by him in the B.M.]


1854. Original Poems, Songs, and Essays, by the Late William Gardiner, of Lydney Academy . . . with a Narrative of His Life, by His


Daughter . . . London, 1854. G.P.L.


Title. &c, pp. i.-viii. : Memoir, pp. 1-59; Poems. Sec., pp. 01-17*'.. The first edition of these poems entitled " Poems on various occasions," 1813, [see ante, vol. 2, p. 231] contained no Memoir.




Original Tales from my Landlord is one of a series of books illustrated by George Cruikshank and written by William Gardiner.³


William Gardiner was born at Whitchurch, in Herefordshire, April 16, 1766, and educated at Bristol under the celebrated mathematician Mr. Donne. In 1793, soon after his marriage, he left England for Philadelphia, where for two years he engaged in commercial pursuits. In 1796, he embarked a second time for America, and settled at Baltimore as a schoolmaster, where he remained till the spring of 1803. In 1804, he removed to Lydney, where he conducted a boarding-school. In 1817, he was introduced to Mr. D. Mackay, of Newgate Street, who engaged him to write some works of fiction, and as editor of The British Lady's Magazine. He died on May 18, 1825. A list of his numerous pieces will be found in The Narrative of his Life, by his daughter.4


Source: http://www.priaulxlibrary.co.uk/priaulx-library-new-details2.asp?ItemID=81




The text of William White, Notes and Queries, Vol 12, Jul-Dec 1855, p. 146. From Google Books



Having left his father’s home in less than happy circumstances to take up a position as a clerk in Lydney, sixteen miles away, he set off on foot, sheltering during a shower under a maple tree near Newland, a tree that held a sentimental attachment for his family in later years. To supplement his meagre salary he began to teach – his mother’s wealthy relatives at Pilston were apparently so mean they made no effort to help William or his siblings. although William was the next of kin to the late Edward Perkins and although he was greatly moved to see the house falling into ruin, William did nothing to prevent it being pillaged by the locals.


William became friends with James Howell who had friends at a nearby farm, the Dairy, where he spent many happy moments fell in love with James’ sister, a beautiful and noble lady to whom he wrote many of his poems. During 1791 he moved to a better job in Darlaston but had not yet provided a proper house for them to live in. On 29.8.1791 he was married to Mary Howell in Lydney – a marriage of love we are told. The parish records show a number of baptisms by William and Mary:


·              Caroline Margaret Alicia 9.7.00

·              Mary Ann and Augusta 26.2.04

·              Henrietta Harriet 7.7.05 (died 1871)

·              Eleanor Georgia 22.12.1806

·              Margaret 13.8.08

·              Catherine Sarah 28.4.1811

·              Agnes Maria 18.7.13

·              William Alexander Stephen 26.8.1818 Ailburton, father a school master


There was another daughter, Jane, born in Lydney c1800 whose baptism has not yet been found. Mary Ann and Augusta were born in America and baptised in Aylburton in 1804, following their return. There seems to have been another daughter born c1817 who died in London aged 8 and also a Jenny (if that was not the same person as Jane). Six daughters survived him. .


Soon after his marriage William was persuaded to join a commercial undertaking but fell pray to his unprincipled business associates in a way that ‘ruined [his] prospects and broke up his peaceful home’ (Memoir p12). This may have influenced his decision to sail for America in 1793, obtaining a well paid position (£200 p.a.) in Philadelphia, though not one that gave him much mental satisfaction . While there his wife mended Mrs. George Washington’s dress for her! After two years love of his friends prompted him to return home but his literary efforts were not well received and he now had no prospect of any inheritance from his father since he had lost much of his property. As a result, he returned, alone at first, to America in 1796, settling in Baltimore where he published his poems in the papers. He returned to fetch his wife and (again?) in 1800 and on the latter occasion he carried with him letters of introduction from his relatives to the most influential men of Baltimore. We have no idea why he went to Philadelphia and Baltimore, two places associated with Captain Henry later (he was still in the navy when William emigrated). Roz observes: 


There is a Capt. F Gardiner or Gardner operating from Liverpool c1800 to 1810 (Robert Oliver, Merchant of Baltimore, 1783-1819 - By Stuart Weems Bruchey, Vincent P. Carosoo).


William opened a school for the children of gentlemen and was intending to remain in America but his wife’s delicate health (affected by the climate) forced him to return once more to England in Spring 1803, remaining for some time without an occupation till Jane Clarke persuaded him to open a school (in St. Briavels) and offered him a house rent free (which he refused). He moved to Lydney a year later, conducting a ‘respectable boarding school’ and enjoying an easy and tranquil existence. He devoted time to study, saved a boy from drowning in the Severn, wrote a variety of works including some poems published in the ‘Cambrian’ and the ‘Gloucester Journal’ under the name of the ‘Bard of the Sister Rivers’ – but declined to accept a potentially lucrative offer by composer John Parry to set some to music. In 1808 he took over the legal proceedings in chancery, at considerable expense, but he failed to prosecute the case with sufficient energy, despite possibly having a solid claim based on the will of Joseph Clarke (1738). In 1813 he published some poems dedicated to C. Bathurst, including one celebrating the work of Dr. Edward Jenner (who pioneered the smallpox vaccination), but the circulation was very limited. Mary paints a picture of an idyllic family life (p39) – even the fish in the pond had names and were never eaten -  prior to the closure of his school in 1816 (a victim of the economic effects of peace) and his move to London – setting off from Aylburton at 4am to get the stage from Gloucester, 20 miles away. It was a miserable time at first but he subsequently became the editor of the British Lady’s Magazine and enjoyed the company of his friend and fellow poet Dr. James Whitehead. His wife wrote to him with deeply moving anecdotes about the children and he had some private students in Islington but his hopes for an official position were disappointed. he wrote works of fiction (as did his eldest daughter) and they sold well but he never received his fee of £50 for the first three as the publisher went bust. this, together with the emigration of Dr. Whitehead made his lonely life even more miserable until his family joined him in London in 1819 and during his long spell in the fleet Prison he continued to write for Mr. Mackay, proprietor of the Lady’s Magazine but his work brought little reward. – he sold the copywrite for seven years for £2 – and he supplemented this by private tuition and translation.


William was a fairly prolific if not a particularly outstanding author. His works ranged from children’s stories to tragic dramas. An example of the latter was The Sultana, though it was panned by the critics:




Reed, Isaac: Biographia Dramatica; Or, a Companion to the Playhouse p306 (from Google Books)



The Critical Review, or Annals of Literature vol 9 ed. T.G. Smollett p212 (from Google Books)



A sample of his verse – Select Reviews of Literature ed. E. Bronson vol 3 p92 (from Google Books)


His daughter claims that Mr. Mackay left his name off the cover of ‘The History of Congo in search of his Master’ and ‘Idle Hours’ lest he become too successful and command a higher fee. In 1820 he wrote and delivered at the Marlborough Rooms a eulogistic oration on King George III (25th February) and received from a minister a £20 note for his trouble.


In 1821 he published Original Tales of My Landlord’s School:



Original Tales from my Landlord is one of a series of books illustrated by George Cruikshank and written by William Gardiner.³


William Gardiner's efforts to amuse and instruct children were not always appreciated; he was accused of bad grammar and plagiarism amongst other things.  The titles of the stories in our volume sound exciting: The Force of Example, shewn by the history of Rajispund, son of the wise Scindy, vizier to the Sultan of Ava; and the vision of Cusco, an hermit of the Andes: The Royal Hungarian captives: The Silver Arrow: Maternal Solicitude, exemplified in the history of Prince Hippoocoo, the Dwarf Sultan of Delhi: The Dispensations of Providence, exemplified by the History of Congo, the black slave of Hispaniola, but, [breaks off]


His illustrations for Gardiner's oeuvre were re-used from one little volume to another, for each volume consisted of a number of separate stories, and the possibilities of permutation were endless. If the illustrations really are, as the title-pages claim, by Cruikshank, they are quite uninspired.  Indeed, there is little in Gardiner's tales to inspire. Although they are dressed up in Oriental trappings, so as to fascinate the juvenile mind, and although they are granted the additional allurement of illustrations, their clear aim is to convince the child that he must suppress his imagination (5).


³ 1825: printed and published by Thomas Richardson in Derby and sold by Hurst Chance and Company, London. This last story, Congo, is most interesting as it is highly sympathetic to its eponymous hero and very critical of contemporary American attitudes, which perhaps reflected the author's time spent in Baltimore, where, indeed, part of the story is set.

4 William White, Notes and Queries, Vol 12, Jul-Dec 1855, p. 146.

5 Robert L. Patten, ed., George Cruikshank, Princeton University Press, 1992, p. 97


Source: http://www.priaulxlibrary.co.uk/priaulx-library-new-details2.asp?ItemID=81




The European magazine and London review vols 79-80 p378 (from Google Books)


Links to Some of his Stories:


Story of Pigou                 http://www.archive.org/stream/adventuresofcong00farriala/adventuresofcong00farriala_djvu.txt

Adventures of Congo      http://www.archive.org/stream/storyofpigoumala00gard/storyofpigoumala00gard_djvu.txt



The death in 1823 of Mr. Mackay only added to his problems and within eighteen months his health began to decline, not helped by trauma caused by the death of his two youngest children who were buried within a fortnight of each other and were, he felt, victims of medical incompetence. He caught a chill when visiting the city to meet one of his patrons and this developed into consumption. The grief occasioned by attending to the funeral arrangements caused him to give way to momentary despair and early each morning he went to the graves, something known only to his eldest daughter. At this time they were living in rooms on Oxford Street and he continued to work as a private tutor and composing operas. He died on the 18th of May 1825, having dismissed from the room all but his daughter Jenny ten minutes before. Even at the end he was concerned about the grammatical quality of a note to a friend. Within two months his wife too was dead, leaving a son and six daughters to mourn for them.


In 1841 three of the sisters were school mistresses in St. Briavels near Lydney: Jane (35), Caroline (30) and Mary (30 – the ages are very approximate). There were 21 pupils listed, all girls aged 8-15.



The three sisters in 1841 (full image)


The 1851 census for Aylburton records Jane (51, Lidney, School Mistress) as well as Mary Ann (44, Baltimore, teacher), Henrietta (39, Aylburton, teacher) and William (33, Aylburton, visitor). Jane’s age is clearly flattering – William was back in Gloucestershire well before 1807!



With brother William in 1851


In 1871 the siblings were still together in Aylburton: Jane (72, annuitant, Lydney), Mary Ann (64, Maryland, annuitant), Henrietta (60, Lydney, annuitant) and William (55, Alburton, Agent for Tea and [?Insurance] Company).



The Gardiners in 1871


With regard to another of William’s daughters, Roz has found another interesting connection:


I cannot find an Augusta Gardiner marriage or burial. There is an Augusta Gardiner dau of John D Gardiner b 1837 at Kennebuk or Kennebuk Maine which is where C. Clement who is one of Capt. Henry's subscribers lived.


We might also note that Faith’s son was Edward Clement Davies.


In 1881 William A.S. (65, unmarried insurance agent, Aylburton) was living alone in the village of Aylburton.



William in Aylburton in 1881




Mary (born 1767)


Nothing is known about Mary beyond the statement in the Memoir that ‘the eldest daughter married a Mr. Mare of Plymouth.



Richard (born 1769)


In 1841 we find Richard (60 – water man) and Elizabeth (60); with them were James (25), William (age illegible but given as 70 in the transcript), Amelia (20) and Domenico (11 months). Edward’s son should have been 71 so it seems more likely that this is the Richard baptised by John and Sarah Gardner on 14th January 1779 in Whitchurch and that the Richard Gardiner who married Elizabeth Gauler there on 8th or 9th September 1803 is the same person. He is found in the censuses for 1851 and 1861 and is presumably the person buried in Whitchurch on 28.8.1864, aged 86. According to the Memoir (p58) Edward’s son Richard was drowned at sea but no indication is given as to date or circumstances.



Richard the Water Man in 1841



George (born 1771)


Nothing is known of George beyond the fact that he died in unknown foreign parts.





Nothing is known of Elizabeth



Part I Chapter 1.3: Origins - The Children of Mary Hodges




Gardiners and the Old Mill


Originally no record could be found of the baptism (or marriage) of James Gardiner, the father of Henry (b1811). An exhaustive search of the Parish registers for Whitchurch, initially by Roger and Pat Gardener and also by researchers in the area has failed to turn up any reference to James so it might seem that he was not born in that parish. Nor is there any record of Captain Henry Gardiner being baptised there. The baptism of James’ son Henry in Goodrich and the birth of his brother James in the same area suggested, but did not prove, a Herefordshire origin for the family. Samuel Gardiner, thought to be James’ son, had an unmarried aunt Jane who was born around 1783, possibly in Monmouth. This suggests that her brother James may be from the same area and the death certificate from 1837 suggests that he was born around 1780. Monmouth is only a few miles from Goodrich so we could deduce that the family originated in that area. A James Gardiner is said to have been baptised in Shirenewton in 1787, Monmouthshire, but it is not especially near Goodrich. It is now assumed that he is the James who was baptised by Mary Hodges in 1795, though his birth was presumably some years earlier. The evidence that James, Jane, Penelope, Susanna and Faith (all of whom can be linked to each other) were the illegitimate children of Edward Gardiner (and that they changed their surnames) is overwhelming.


Description: Description: Description: goodrichchurch


Goodrich Village


Family tradition asserts that James, together with Sarah and their two sons, came north having given up the occupation of miller and this is supported by two significant sources. The list of subscribers to Captain Gardiner’s Memoirs of 1812 include a J. and H. Gardiner at ‘Old Mill’ and parish records found by local historian Roz Lowe show a Mr. Gardiner at that mill in 1815 but not 1819. The first probable reference to James in Liverpool is from 1816.


Goodrich parish records


Assessments for Old Mill


BF16/61 assessment for poor relief August 1815


Mr Gardiner Old Mill 11s


BF16/54 assessment for building a Shire Hall Dec 1819


Mr Marfell Old Mill 3s/8d


With regard to the mill, Roz writes:


The Old Mill in Goodrich is one of my interests, and [I] have recently published an article proving that it is mentioned in 1100. It was in the ownership of one family from until 1884, so your Gardiners could have been tenants - I would be interested to have the names of the local subscribers to Ed [actually Henry] Gardiner's book. There was a 'New Mill' in Goodrich, and a mill in Whitchurch, though I think that was owned by another family with Goodrich connections, the Yates. … Old Mill with no parish given [in the list of subscribers to the Memoirs] is almost certainly in Goodrich.


In her ‘Villa Chachebren or New Court, Marstow: a Monmouth Priory estate’ Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, 2007 she says:


Old Mill in Goodrich was the site of the mill of ‘Hulla’ or ‘Castellum Goderich’ identified in the Domesday survey.


‘Old Mill’, Goodrich

The manor of Goodrich had a fishery in the Domesday survey, but no mention is made of a mill.[i] The Garron is a more suitable river for siting a corn mill than the Wye, and the mill shown in Figure 1 on the corner of the road leading to New Court was already known as ‘Old Mill’ by 1506.[ii]


William le Mareschal, who was granted the manor of Goodrich in 1204, granted to the monks of St. Peter’s, ‘in pure alms the mill and suit of mill of his whole vill of Godric’s Castle...’ in the time of Henry Folet.[iii] The mill appears several times in the Inquisitions post mortem of the lords of Goodrich, being worth 13s. 4d. in 1307,[iv] but by 1372 it was worth only 5s. because ‘it is decayed.’[v] The work of ‘Robert Taylor de olde mylle’ in mentioned in the Goodrich manor court roll of 1506, though he may have been a tenant.[vi]


The mill and lands eventually came into the hands of the Powell family, and the disputed inheritance of it was one of the major causes of the later disturbances. It is not known when the mill was acquired by the family, but according to one deponent at that time the family had owned the property for two hundred years—allowing for the usual exaggeration it must have been more than fifty years.[vii] It remained in the hands of their descendants until sold after 1884.


It seems certain therefore that the ‘Little Cae Brian’ shown on the 1884 map is part or all of the ‘Cakebraine next Old Mill’ in New Court in the 1690 deed mentioned earlier. The ‘Cakebraine next Marstow’ is ‘Cae Brain’.




i  The fishery is almost  certainly ‘Old Weare’just upstream from Mainoaks, already ‘old’ in 1454. HRO, O68/II/31

ii  HSM 5721, SO 5599 1938. Goodrich manor court rolls, HRO, G38 I 1 f.3.

iii Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, Vol. 1, p.546; John Hobson Matthews, Collections towards..History of the County of Hereford, Hundred of Wormelow, p.78.

iv Matthews, p.101.

v Matthews, p.105.

vi HRO, G38/I/1 f.3.

vi TNA, STAC/8/18/5 f.16. ‘Richard Powell the younger then beinge an infant under the age of sixteen years who clayme the premisses by lawefull descent from his ancestors which continued in the name and blood of the Powells for the space of two hundred years past and more as lawfull owners of the said premisses by ancient entails made to the heirs males of the body of Thomas Powell and his Father  the ancestors of the defendant Richard Powell the younger...’


Elsewhere she writes:


My article on Villa Cachebren, or  New Court, Marstow. … has a lot about the age of Old Mill. It was already called 'Old Mill' by 1505, in manorial documents. In 1589, after the weir at the main iron-working site (in Goodrich manor) which is downstream on the Wye was broken down by rioters, the former corn mill at 'New Mill' or 'New Mills' which is further down the Garron than 'Old Mill' was turned into an iron forge, hence the name it has of 'Old Forge'. So the name Old Mill goes back a long way, as does New Mill. We have a pub in a local parish which was (and is) called 'New Inn', which it was already by the 15th century. I have attached an article which has a good map of both. It does not show 'New Mill' by name, but it is just north of where the Garron goes under 'Old Forge Bridge'. I don't think the mill at New Mill was in the hands of the Gardiners as lessees, rather someone called Powell.


Both Old Mill and New Mill are very close to the parish boundary, in fact Old Mill was inadvertently put in the parish of Marstow recently by the county council, and my husband who's a parish councillor had to get it re-instated in Goodrich.


Description: Description: Description: old_mill_goodrich_c1900   Description: Description: Description: old_mill_goodrich_06072009


Photos of the Old Mill in 1900 and in the early 2000s.


James may have married a lady called Sarah James (according to baptism records from Pitt Street Chapel in Liverpool), possibly the Sarah James born to William and Anne and baptised in Whitchurch on 10.11.1776 but this seems unlikely given that the couple are thought to have had a child in 1829 and that a Sarah James was buried in Whitchurch in 1805. Perhaps his wife was the Sarah James baptised at St. Peter's in Liverpool in 1783; if so, it implies that James had some contact with the city before the birth of Henry in 1811. The couple probably married in or before 1810 since their first known son Henry was baptised in July 1811. However, we might also note a marriage record from Ross on Wye of a James Hodges and a Sarah Godsell in 1799.


James followed in 1813 and Penelope in 1814 but neither was apparently baptised in Goodrich as their brother was. Only one other Gardiner baptised in Goodrich has been found (Thomas in 1792) but there were several families in Whitchurch.



Penelope Gardiner and her Family


James was a witness at the wedding of Susanna Gardiner to John Tummy in 1813 (8th December, Goodrich); the other witness was a Penelope Gardiner. Mrs A. Rose noticed that the wedding in Goodrich on 21.6.1815 between Penelope Gardiner and Thomas Davies was witnessed by James and Sarah Gardiner.


Thomas and Penelope appear to have had three children in Goodrich known to us:


·              Mary Ann or Marianne

·              Penelope (baptised 22.3.1817 in Goodrich)

·              Edward Clement (baptised 15.10.1818 in Goodrich).


The basis for Marianne is the 1851 census where Penelope is described as her sister. A Mary Ann was baptised in 1813 and another on 9.5.1816 in Goodrich – but the mother was Mary, the father Thomas, an inn keeper (1813) or barge builder (1816), and their residence was New Weare. This couple went on to have other children so it is unlikely that either of these baptisms is the Marianne from 1851, which means there is no known baptism for this eldest daughter since all the other Marianne Davies in the Forest of Dean database are baptised by different parents.


In 1815 Thomas (an officer of excise) and Penelope were living at New Mill Hill; at the time of Penelope’s baptism their residence was given as Newmill Hill and at Edward’s as ‘Old Forge’ (see above for Roz’s comments on this site of a water-driven iron forge dating from c1580). The two addresses probably refer to the same place as the Old Forge was on Newmill Hill. 


We lose sight of the family for some 22 years. The next we hear of them is the information (given in Victorian Monmouth by K. Kissack) that the May Hill Academy in Dixton, Monmouth, was founded c1830.


This boarding school provided general instruction in needlework and academic subjects and in 1841 we find the two Penelopes (mother, 40, [?proprietress] boarding school, and daughter, 15, teacher) living in Wynsham, Dixton, Monmouthshire, together with Mariann (20, teacher). None was born in the county and the name is spelt ‘Davis’. There were three other teachers, young ladies of 20, and 29 pupils aged between 15 and 3, seven of whom were boys. This is very interesting since it implies a degree of education for the illegitimate daughter of a ‘disreputable woman’. Thomas appears to have died prior to this date.




The two Penelopes and Mariann in 1841


The school is said to have flourished in the mid 1840s and the Vicar of Dixton commented that 'This family are all Professional Dissenters of the Independent Persuasion'. Penelope senior has not been found in 1851 - she was presumably the lady who died on 22nd October1850 in Dixton, Monmouth. The death certificate gives few details; she was 56, a school teacher   and had died of bronchitis and [illegible?]. The age at death is a little out (she should be 60 at least) but the other details match up. The informant was Rebecca Fryer of West Bridge Lane, Monmouth, 40, probably the wife of Thomas, plasterer aged 30 (1841 census); they are recorded as having married on 7.7.1829 in Dixton Newton (her name given as Rebekah Wall) and he may be the Thomas aged 82 from Monmouth, widower, living in Jones Almshouses in 1881, though no baptism has been found for him. We might note that the 1851 census records a Maryan Fryer aged 44 from Goodrich living in Monmouth with her husband Edward, a 55 year old walking stick maker from that town; she was Maryann Witherstone, baptised 16.6.06 and married to Edward W. Fryers on 8.9.1825 in Monmouth.



The hotel thought to have been the home of the Mayhill Academy


In 1851 Maryann and Penelope (34 and 33, Goodrich) were listed as Governess Schoolmistress and Assistant in May Hill, Dixton. The school was apparently thriving; they had 2 other teachers, 49 pupils, 13 boys and 36 girls, including their niece Ann Davies (4, Middlesex), mostly from South Wales but one from Liverpool.



Penelope and Maryann in 1851


Penelope junior seems to have married Richard Scott in Monmouth in (Mar)1855 but he died only four years later in 1859 leaving her a widow – the 1861 census finds her at May Hill House, a school mistress (43, Whitchurch) with three assistants, a house maid, cook and 27 pupils, only one a boy, , mostly but not all from the surrounding counties. Perhaps significantly, the boy was James Arnold Winsloe of Trellick.



Penelope, a widow, in 1861


She remarried in Monmouth in (Dec)1862 to William Baker. In 1871 we find them in Frog Lane, Drayton Magna, Market Drayton where he was the 52 year old Wesleyan minister at Drayton Chapel (born Tiverton) and she was said to be 52 from Monmouth. The daughter Sarah S. (26, Wells, Norfolk) was presumably from a previous marriage.



Penelope with her new family in 1871


By 1881 they were in Wadleys End, Winterbourne, Gloucester; he was 62, a retired Wesleyan Minister from Tiverton, she was also claiming to be 62 and her birthplace was given as Goodrich.


Marianne may be the lady who married in Monmouth in (Jun)1851.


It has not been possible to identify Edward in 1841 with any certainty. He may be the Edward Davis (23, M[ale] S[ervant] and – as we would expect – not born in the county) in St. George Street, St. Margaret’s, Westminster but the details are hardly conclusive. He qualified as a chemist in 1843 and married Elizabeth Badcock in 1844 in Colchester but gave his address as London. His children – Edward Clement (1846), Regina A. (1847) and Mary Elizabeth (1858) were all born in London (Albany Park Villas, Munster Place, regents Park). He was a chemist (31, Goodrich) in 1851 in Silver Street, Gainsborough, married to Elizabeth (29, Launceston, Cornwall) with children Edward C. and Mary Elizabeth (5 and 4, both Middlesex, St. (?)Pancras). Where Regina was is not known. His mother-in-law Mary was living with them and it has been suggested that Elizabeth may already have been unwell, but that is pure speculation. Her husband, John, was an officer of Inland Revenue in Sheffield, which raises the possibility that Edward met his wife through a work colleague of his father’s. John and Mary were back together in Devon in later years; John died there in the 1870s and his wife moved to Liverpool to live with her other daughter, dieing there in the 1880s. A son, John, was born and his first wife died soon after the census (1852 in Gainsborough) and in 1853 he remarried, to Sarah Carter in Gainsborough, giving his father’s profession as ‘Officer of Inland Revenue’; he was not described as ‘deceased’ was not said to be deceased but that is not conclusive. A son, Arthur Marfell, was born in Gainsborough on 2nd March 1857.




Is this Edward in 1841?



Edward C. Davies in Gainsborough in 1851


In 1861 he was a commercial traveller (42, Goodrich) living at 2 Talbot Villas, Clarendon ?Walk, Kensington, Southampton, with his wife Sarah (Nottingham) sister-in-law Mary A. Carter (32, House Proprietor?, Lincolnshire), children Edward C. (15, clerk to a solicitor, Middlesex St. Pancras), Regina A. (14, St Pancras), John (?) H[ewitt]. (10, Gainsborough), Arthur M[arfell].  (4, Gainsborough),  a border and a servant both 19 from Lincolnshire.



Edward in 1861


In 1871 we find him in Battersea (51, Hereford, Goodrich, commercial traveller) with wife Sarah (45), sons Edward (25, St Pancras, occupation illegible) and Arthur (14, Gainsborough, scholar). Regina (24, Middlesex) was a governess with a merchant’s family in Havant. His son John has not yet been found, nor has Mary Elizabeth - they weren't with their maternal grandparents the 'Badcocks'.



Edward in 1871



Regina Annie Davies in Havant in 1871


In 1881 Edward, said to have been a traveller in pharmaceutical goods, was living near Brighton, at 77 Ditchling Rise, Preston (but is listed as Charles C., Commission Agent, 61, Goodrich). His wife, Sarah E., was 55, from Misterton, Notts, and with them were daughter, Regina A. (32, London) and son Arthur  M. who was a grocer (24, Gainsborough). There was also a visitor and a servant. Apparently he rented various flats in that street and had a house in Lewisham, London to which his wife returned after his death. Edward moved around rather a lot - Munster Place, Regents Park, Lewisham, Gainsborough, Lincs., Southampton and Ditchling Rise, Brighton. Edward’s son John was living in Lewisham, London with his family, he was a commercial traveller. Edward C jnr was also living in Lewisham with his family - he worked for the 'met b'd of works sol.office'. according to Page’s Directory and the local electoral roll, in 1864 Edward was at 65 Ditchling Rise and at 67 for the next three years, premises consisting of three unfurnished first floor rooms at a rental of 10/- a week (the landlady was apparently Miss Medora Tuck, a lady in her mid to late 60s).



Edward (wrongly called Charles) in Sussex in 1881


In 1891 Edward was in Ramsgate, perhaps visiting on business (Regina has not yet been found). The need to travel for work may also explain why he died in Southampton Hospital in 1897, though his address is still Ditchling Rise (though now number 125 and spelt Datchley, but presumably the same place). Edward Clement’s daughter Mary Elizabeth (b1848) said that her brother sent his children to Eton, suggesting that there was money somewhere in the family; Edward did not leave anything to his children from his first marriage as they were already taken care of, though it is not known how.


Edward’s will of 1897 states: 'I wish Miss S Berrydanes niece of Mr and Mrs Cawte of the Sussex Hotel Southsea in County of Hants to be given my watch & chain the former given me by my mother when I became twenty one years old & the latter the chain worn by my first wife Elizabeth Davies'. He goes on to say 'my debt of gratitude to her for having by her example in performance of duty and pure life and conversation done me more good morally than any person that ever lived except only my mother'.  He also refers to the house in Monmouth owned by his grandmother - 30 St.Mary Street – in which he gave his wife Sarah a life interest (it was then to go to his daughter Regina on her death). He left effects to the value of £775.


Edward C. junior was a solicitor’s clerk at the Board of Trade. In 1874 he had a so, George Gardiner Davies, an interesting indication that the family retained a fond connection with what was by now a distant past (Penelope ceased to be a Gardiner and 1815 and had died in 1850. In 1881 he was 35 (Officer of Met. Bd of Works, born Albany St., Regents Park) with wife Susannah and three children born in Lewisham, current address - 2 Guycliff Villas, Lewisham. His son George married in 1900, the year he himself died, and in 1901 he and new wife Ann were at Hither Green Lane in Lewisham, a 26 year old assistant company secretary to a chartered accountant. Apparently in the same house at 173 Hither Green Lane was Susannah Davies, widow aged 52 with her son William F. her sister Emma Haggor? aged 58  and Cecil E.Badcock,  visitor, a relative of Edward’s first wife Elizabeth (Badcock). . 



Edward C. Jnr with son George Gardiner in 1881



George Gardiner Davies – assistant company secretary in Hither Green Lane, Lewisham


Regina is found in 1901 running a school in Lewisham and seems to have died in Faversham in (Mar)1924, aged allegedly 75 (she should have been 77). The probate records show the following:


Regina Ann Davies of the Nursing Home, Faversham, Kent died 27/3/1924 Probate London 8th May to William Francis DAVIES Hotel Proprietor and George GARDINER DAVIES accountant. Effects £1137.6s.1d.



Regina in 1901


John H. may have been a tailor and Arthur may have taken over his father’s business on the latter’s death. Mary had an illegitimate son Henry Hutton in 1872 (11th November, 10 Laurence Pountney Lane, City of London) and married a John Francis but she has not yet been found in the 1871 censu. She had further children Susannah Louise (or Louisa, b1877, Dovercourt), Jesse Alice (b1883), William, Arthur and Lilly.  Family tradition has it that she was a nurse and she died in 1921 (Dovercourt, Essex). Susannah married Lancelot Rose, a merchant seaman, in 1895 in Thorp le Token and had six children: Jack (a boxer in the RAF), Harry (killed in an accident at sea in the early 20th century), Robert William (b1900), Reggie (navy), Doll and Ivy. Jesse married agricultural labourer John Wilson Lord and had three children – Ben, Ethel May (b1901) and one other. Ethel married her cousin Robert William Rose in Dovercourt (?1923) and had a son Raymond Wilson (b1928) who married Enid, Joan and finally Ann Parris (in 1964) and had children Russell (1965, Hainault, Essex) and Jane (1967, Ham, Surrey). Ray, a bookseller who also loved to write, died in 1998 in Kingston.


[Much of the information given above is courtesy of Ann Rose]



Faith Gardiner


The editor of Edward Jones’ memoir writes:


Faith GARDINER (FGS-I) was born 1 June 1794, probably in Herefordshire. She was one of twenty-seven children sired by her father. The author assumes there was more than one mother. We know little more than that until she married William JONES in the Micheldean Parish Church at Gloucester on 16 September 1817!

From the Baptismal dates of the Whitchurch Parish Records of Monmouth, we know they had seven children before immigrating to Canada. The Grand-mother they buried before leaving appears to have been Elizabeth JONES who died 28 January 1830 at age 96.3
St. Dubricius, the parish church at Whitchurch is over 600 years old and also worth a visit. It is quite a thrill to stand in the church in which William and Faith worshiped 170 years ago. From the children's baptismal records of this parish we find that William was a tailor by trade.


Edward himself told his niece:


I have often heard my mother [Faith] speak of carrying her [mother-in-law] in her arms, at night and laying her in her bed, how the dear old mother always expected a farewell kiss as a benediction, and what seemed sweeter than all, was the prayer of the dear old woman, which always included a peti- tion to the heavenly father, that His choicest blessings might abide with the dear nurse who was so kind to her.

My parents had, several years before, resolved to immigrate to America and had only delayed putting their resolution into practice, for the reason that they could not think of taking the bed fast mother with them. At length this impediment to their going was removed, for my mother had put her ward in her bed for the last time and the hearse had borne her to the little churchyard of Whichurch [sic], near the city of Monmouth, where the dear old soul awaits the resurrection.

William JONES and Faith his wife, being now foot free, in the early part of May with their seven children sailed from the port of Bristol, on the old ship Edward Colston, for Quebec. After an unpleasant voyage of six weeks, the ship arrived at its destination and a few days later, the passengers were landed at Montreal. Here my parents took up their residence for twenty months. Just before their arrival in the last named city, the Asiatic Cholera, which swept around the world in the early 30's had broken out in its most virulent form in all the country bordering on the St. Lawrence and the great lakes. The prospect for the newly arrived imigrants [sic], was most gloomy. Instead of the bright dreams, which they had painted, the land filled with sunshine and happiness which they hoped to reach, the financial prosperity which they expected to enjoy, in short all that had lured them from their old homes, quickly vanished and these hopes and aspirations were replaced with sights of woe and suffering such as they had never dreamed before. The gloom of tIle grave settled down on all, on city and country alike. My parents had formed new ac- quaintances on ship board; as they had like experiences, as their hopes and anticipations were the same, acquaintance had ripened into love […] which all had hoped would make life in the new home more plea- sent by a continuance of the happy relations formed an the voyage from their common home, by becoming neighbors in the new land. Within a few days after landing these hopes were dissipated, for some of the families of the new friends were nearly wiped out by the pestilence which stalked by midday. The sorrow for the loss of these new friends, and the total suspension of business gave a somber hue to the future of the passengers of the Colston. But the desperate situation in which the new comers were involved, had, for some at least, its compensations, such my mother found it. She day and night ministered to the suffering and assisting in preparing the dead for burial. She could not think of seeing her friends carried away in the death carts, to be thrown into trenches, and covered with quick lime, she insisted that they should have a Christian burial, and where no minister could be obtained to perform the last sad rights, she assumed the place of minister as well as of nurse. During these terrible times, she has often said that she never enjoyed better health, her family too were well, none of them taking the disease. It may seem strange, but it is nevertheless true that she used the same preventatives as are n~w employed by the most skilled physicians to avoid the disease. She used no water which had not been boiled, ate no food which had not been recently cooked and subjected her dishes used on the table to a high temperature before serving her food. The children used to complain of the usage to which they were subjected, for they wanted to drink cold water and to eat cold food, but these articles were strictly prohibited. She knew nothing of the germ theory, in fact that theory had not been ad- vanced at that time, but she had observed that people who drank water frequently were more apt to incur the disease than those who drank sparingly and then not in places where there were persons ill with the disease. After a stay in Montreal of twenty months, the family removed to Niagara-on-the-Lake, now 3: noted summer resort, During the residence at Montreal Edward [FGS-I], a bright child of 4 years and baby Mary [FGS-I] passed away to the great grief of the family. From the village of Niagara the next remove was to the village of St. Catherines, located but a few miles from the fall of Niagara. Here your father [James Winslow JONES] was apprenticed to a farmer named PHELPS where he began his education as a tiller of the soil.


I remember to have seen his indentures as an apprentice a few years before I left Wisconsin. At St. Catherines my mother was installed as the housekeeper for her brother Captain Henry GARDINER,5 who at that time was the owner of a large farm but a short distance from the village. Although I was at this time less than three years of age I distinctly remember the place, and I also have a distinct recollection of my uncle. In a battle with the French, on the 1st day of June A.D. 1794- the day my mother [Faith] was born, he received this wound made by a cannon shot which must have removed most of the skin from his forehead, for his whole forehead was a great scar. My father did not wish to remain in the King's dominions, but had a strong desire to become a citizen of the U.S. so in 1837 the family left Canada and removed to [Batavia] Genessee County in the state of New York. Here we remained until May 1849 when the next remove was to Concord, Jefferson County, Wisconsin.


(Source http://avwb.com/part1chapter1.htm)


The Joneses in Concord on 1st June 1850


The rest of the story as made available on the internet can be read here.



Susanna Tummy


Apart from her baptism and marriage to John, nothing is known about Susanna. Her husband was from Llangarren (where other Tummys are recorded), a parish not covered by the Forest of Dean database; perhaps they lived there and had children but no trace of any has been found. In 1841 a John Tummy (aged 45, agricultural labourer) was living in nearby Walford but he was with a 55 year old lady called Esther. Captain Henry Gardiner refers to his sister ‘Susan’ in his will – which might imply that Susanna was still alive in 1853 and possibly in Canada or America but if so there is no record of her.



A John Tummy in Walford in 1841



Gardiners in the Wye Valley in Later Years


In 1841 there were no Gardiners in Goodrich but there were several in Whitchurch (and two Gardeners – Elizabet and William – 1826 / ‘23). One family (in Doward) consisted of John (60, ag’ lab’), Sarah (50), Hannah (15), Thomas (25) and James (12). John and Sarah (aged 72 and 62) appear in Whitchurch in 1851 and appear to have married in 1811; their children included Mary (1815), John (1817), William (1819 in Hentland or Llangarron), Elizabeth (1825), James (1829), Jonas (1833) and Edmond (1835). Two doors away was Richard the boatman with Elizabeth (55), James (25), William (10), Amelia (20) and Domenico (11m). The transcript does not include them but there were also probably Thomas (60 – ag lab), Elizabeth (55), James (30, ag lab), Mary (20) and Thomas (2) Gardiner in the same district as John and Sarah.




Left: Richard Gardiner, water man, in 1841                    

Right: John Gardiner in Doward in 1841




Thomas Gardiner in 1841


Presumably these were in some way related to Edward but the family relationships are yet to be clarified. .


In Ross we find in 1841 an Edward Gardener (45, J[ourneyman] mason), Elizabeth (45), Edward (25, J[ourneyman] mason) and Elizabeth (20). We know from 1851 that Edward (Gardner), a stonemason who was then 59, was born in Goodrich and that his wife (58) was from Ross. Again there would seem to be a likely link to Henry and James.


The tithe maps of 1847 list three Gardiners with property in Whitchurch – John (cottage and garden), William (orchard, cottage and garden) and James (cottage and land).


1851 Census Index

Whitchurch & area only

Chorlett 28 Wh 2444 415a

Elizabeth 72 Wh 2444 437b

James 20 Wh 2444 435a

James 28 Wh 2444 433b

James 36 Wh 2444 415a

John 72 Wh 2444 435a

Mary Ann 30 Wh 2444 433b

Richard 73 Wh 2444 437b

Sally 62 Wh 2444 435a

Thomas 10 Wh 2444 433b

William 20 Wh 2444 437b

No Gardiners are found in Goodrich in 1861 but an Edward Gardiner, born there in 1793 was living alone in Ross. There were about a dozen Gardiners or Gardeners in Whitchurch including a Sarah (1788 St. Peter’s Heref., living alone) and Richard (1775) with his family - Elizabeth (1779), James (1813), Charlotte (1823), Mary A. (1853), Sarah (1856), Hezekiah (1858) and Samuel (1860).



Part I Chapter 1.4: Origins - Captain Henry Gardiner



Henry Gardiner – Liverpool Merchant


A Henry Gardiner had for many years run a Grocers and Provision Dealers, first at 2 Lower Sparling Street (1813-7) then also, assuming it is the same man in each case, at 21 (1816), 20 (1818), 25 (1821) and later 32 and 35 Wapping (1820-29/1832). On 16th April 1815 a Henry Gardiner and his wife Mary baptised a son, Henry at St. Peter’s. This Henry was presumably the same man since he was a provision dealer of Wapping. He may be the Gardiner of Pearson, Hodgson and Gardiner who had a warehouse in Wapping and who were involved in the import and shipping business (later we find reference made to a ship called the Henry Gardiner). It is stated in an academic article (‘The Lancashire Bill System and Its Liverpool Protagonists, 1810-1827’ by S. G. Checkland - Economica, New Series, Vol. 21, No. 82 May, 1954, pp. 129-142) that Henry was the first merchant to import wheat from the Middle East. In 1812 he put an advert in the Mercury to say that he was going on a tour on foot to Bristol via Wales and the Midlands and referring to his book Anglo-American or The Memoirs of Captain Henry Gardiner which was published in London and Liverpool in 1813. He refers to his Store being in Sparling Street, next to the American Hotel, which seems to confirm that we are dealing with the same person in all these records (and we might note that a James and Sarah Gardiner were in Sparling Street in 1816). as well as giving an account of his life upto 1812 he includes information of general interest on the geography of the countries he visits, naval customs, such as crossing the equator and burial at sea, and even advice on how to measure the distance to other planets). Quite how reliable some of his reminiscences are is uncertain – there is obviously some partiality and self-promotion and some of the chronology does not quite seem to fit with known dates but there is no need to doubt the essential accuracy of his life story.


 Advert in the Mercury in 1812 (8.5)                


In his book (available for download on Google Books – a digitalised copy from New York Library) Henry calls himself a ‘citizen of Maryland’ but states that his family had been in Herefordshire for several hundred years and that there were memorials inside and outside the church showing that the family had enjoyed mixed fortunes. Sadly he does not name the church, the place of his birth or the name of his father; all we are told is that his father had twenty seven children and that through no fault of his own he had fallen on hard times. The family was obviously of some status but Henry had had to go to sea as a boy and the rest of the book consists of his experiences, astronomical and geographical observations, insights into life at sea and some poetry. His mother, with whom his relationship seems to have become somewhat distant, had a rich brother but again no names or locations are given. The impression is that the brother at least was living in England and, much more significantly, among the list of people who had subscribed to the book were a number from Goodrich and Whitchurch.



The Problem of Henry’s Birth


It has not been straightforward establishing that Capt. Henry was the brother of James Hodges / Gardiner; Mr. J. Blows was always inclined to accept that he was, though he has now abandoned his idea that Henry and Edward, born 1865 and a mariner, were the same person. That he was born in Herefordshire is confirmed by his son’s death certificate. Henry gives only the most flimsy clues as to his birth date but it was assumed at first that he was born c1766 on the basis of a death notice in the Liverpool Mercury, a record of a Henry Gardiner, merchant, aged 56 arriving in Philadelphia from Liverpool in 1822 and a reference he makes to the Dutch in St. Eustatia at the time of his first voyage (Memoirs p7).. Roz initially commented


I agree that Capt. Henry must have been born pre-1770, as he says that he visited St Eustatia when it was still in the hands of the Dutch - they lost it in 1781. He was not much older than 12 then. I would imagine that Edward G would not have already started his adultery so early.



The misleading death notice – Mercury 7.2.1840                                     


In the light of the evidence and a passage in the Memoirs Roz had already concluded that he was born c1775:


I do not think he was born as early as 1766. He says that he was in the West Indies in St Domingo when he was about 15, when the slaves' revolts were causing trouble and the Europeans were leaving. This happened between 1790 and 1794. i.e. this would give him a birth date 1775 onwards. Edward may have started his relationship with Mary Hodges sometime before she actually came to live in the house.


In fact he was born in 1774-75, as a death notice in the St. Catherine’s Journal quoted in A Very Welsh Beginning (p103) tells us: he died in April 1853 in his 79th year. This is consistent with his claim to be one of the ‘younger branch’ of the family (though that may be a euphemism for illegitimate) but is quite incompatible with him being aged around 11 or 12 in the late 1770s. If he had been born in 1766 it would have been impossible for Mary Hodges (born c1756) to have been his mother and would have left a gap from 1866 to the first known Hodges baptism in 1783 - there is no baptism of a Henry Hodges in Whitchurch, nor for that matter of a Henry Gardiner, though there are plenty of other as-yet unaccounted for children.


Not all the problems of his birth are solved by our knowledge of the year. He describes the letter he wrote to his mother when he returned to Britain in the mid 1790s and his subsequent visit to his relatives in Herefordshire (chapter VII) and there is no mention of his father and the obvious implication is that he was dead. Edward Gardiner died in 1802. While we need to make allowance for partiality and romanticised memories on the part of a child who saw little of his father from the age of 11, the cruelty of Edward to his children described by his grand daughter does not match the Captain’s affectionate memory and description of a highly respected gentleman and ‘universal friend’ (Memoirs p4). Furthermore, we have the wording of Capt. Gardiner’s father’s memorial and it is not the one known to belong to Edward found in Whitchurch (Memoirs p5) and it is notable that there are no Hodges among the subscribers to his book (though we note Miss P. Gardiner, perhaps Penelope). The fact that there was a silver mine owned by a James Hodges might not in itself have been conclusive but the discovery on the internet of extracts from a book by William Jones and David Thomas called A Very Welsh Beginning removes any real doubt about the connection.  This book appears to be essentially a memoir of his family written in 1915 by Edward Jones, youngest son of Faith Hodges / Gardiner. As yet only extracts have been made available online and only ‘snippets’ on Google Books (and most of thechapter on Henry is simply a summary of his Memoirs) but it clearly states that Henry was the brother of Faith (Gardiner). In Part 1 Chapter 1 it is stated:


Faith GARDINER (FGS-I) was born 1 June 1794, probably in Herefordshire. She was one of twenty-seven children sired by her father


Later the author states:


At St. Catherines my mother was installed as the housekeeper for her brother Captain Henry GARDINER,5 who at that time was the owner of a large farm but a short distance from the village. Although I was at this time less than three years of age I distinctly remember the place, and I also have a distinct recollection of my uncle. In a battle with the French, on the 1st day of June A.D. 1794- the day my mother [Faith] was born, he received this wound made by a cannon shot which must have removed most of the skin from his forehead, for his whole forehead was a great scar.


Despite the fact that Henry did not receive the wound described in that battle, this seems to be irrefutable evidence that the Captain was the son either of Hodges or of Edward or possibly of both.  The Captain’s hint that his father fell on hard times fits well with Mary Anne’s statement that Edward’s life ended in ruin and disgrace and plunged his wife and children into misery and the reference to lawyers in the family matches the information given in the Memoirs and the fact that Edward’s son Edward is recorded as a mariner fits the captain’s reference to sons having to go to work (but not the elder ones or at a young age).


Perhaps ‘younger’ should be taken as a euphemism for ‘illegitimate’. It remains possible that Hodges was his ‘stepmother’ but that seems unlikely. Both the Captain and the editor of the memoir of Edward Jones refer to the 27 children born to Faith and Henry’s father - we still have to account for 9 of these. Perhaps Mary Hodges was giving birth regularly from the early 1770s but did not baptise any of the children or perhaps Edward had another mistress (or mistresses). The editors simply comment: ‘the author assumes there was more than one mother’! If Henry was born a Hodges, he must at some point have changed his name. Since Hodges baptisms occur as late as 1795 and Mary only married Edward in 1799 we are left to assume that the change of name took place when Henry was at least in his 20s and possibly even older, in other words, when he would already be well known under his original name (unless he presumed to use Gardiner when he first went to sea). Thus, the information we have about his birth is contradictory and without more evidence cannot be reconciled, but it seems very probable that he was the son of Edward and Mary Hodges, born c1774.



Henry’s Naval Career


In a poem written for his mother Henry (Memoirs p64) paints a picture of a tender and caring mother, ‘mind intent on heavenly things’, tears flowing, and sighing a prayer in her lullaby (less, one might observe, the image of a cheap trollope, more one of a wronged wife!) Henry provides us with a few glimpses of his childhood: he describes how he fell down a well and how when he was not yet 10 he wrote a poem to comfort his mother when he saw her crying, promising that he’d die in battle for her and referring to him playing with atop and ball (Memoirs p48f). Not long after this he was compelled by circumstances to go to sea, making his first voyage to the island of St. Eustatia. He describes his duties on board ship – sweeping decks. feeding stock, knotting ropes and being at everyone’s beck and call – and some of the rites of passage when crossing the equator. All the voyages he made as a youth were to the West Indies, seven voyages by the age of 15, at which age, when coxswain of  a boat in Bridgetown he got into a fight with some Spaniards and was dragged in front of the governor for a dressing down (pp47ff). He was press-ganged into the navy in 1792 (aged somewhere around 17-18) and taken onto a 74 gun vessel in Torbay under the command of Lord Howe. The authors of A Very Welsh Beginning (p104) provide some additional detail (which ‘Henry so provocatively left out’), taken from the Kew Military Archives:


Description: Description: Loutherbourg,_The_Glorious_First_of_June

16.9.1793 Henry is ‘recruited’ by the tender ‘LOVE’

20.10.1793        Boarded HMS Ganges

21.1.1794 Capt. and crew turned over to HMS Caeser [sic]

1.6.1794            Battle ended in victory for English

1.8.1794            Henry admitted to Hasler Hospital

1.9.1794            Rejoined Caeser

10.4.1795 Discharged to HMS Sampson

3.7.1795            RAN in Barbados [meaning unclear]



A dramatic image of the Glorious First of June



The English ships cruised the French coast and after various manoeuvres during late May 1794 Henry and his shipmates took part in the great naval victory of the ‘Glorious First of June’. Like many of the sailors he caught a fever and spent what he say was several months in hospital so emaciated that he was discharged and unable to find work (though the records suggest it was barely one month and that he returned to his ship). At first he was too proud to return in that state to Herefordshire but wrote to his mother, protesting that he had not heard from her (unaware that here letters had not reached him) and sending her the poem recalling her tenderness when he was a child. He signed the letter ‘Henry Gardiner’, which may be significant if we recall that in 1795 six of his siblings were baptised as Hodges. Whether he got a reply is not stated but before his money finally ran out he swallowed his pride and went to see his relatives, spending several months there recuperating and devoting his time to reflection and study. No mention at all is made of his father, which seems odd if he was, as he implies, very fond of him. The exact chronology of these events may be somewhat different to that implied by Henry if the Kew archives are accurate. He was encouraged to take up a genteel profession and was made an offer of an introduction to a rich uncle but instead enlisted on an American ship in Bristol bound for St. Petersburg where they took on hemp and iron. He was very proud when he was promoted to chief mate, not thanks to any family connection but purely on merit. 


He returned to the USA via France (where he appears to have witnessed some of the effects of the Jacobin terrors though the dates seem a little out) after an absence of five years – and promptly fell in love, enjoying a period of 3 months of bliss, brought to an end by his decision to enlist as first officer on a 500 ton ship bound for the East Indies, a journey which involved rounding the Cape of Good Hope and on which he learnt a lot about seamanship from an old hand.  He visited Calcutta and Batavia, encountering dangerous pirates and suffering a sabre wound to the head but avoiding the fever that was rife there. He returned to America after 13 months and was well rewarded for his efforts and so able to plunge into a ’sea of pleasure and enjoyment’, again turning down suggestions that he take up law or medicine since his heart was set on being a captain. He drank, smoked, got into a fight and then a dual with a Dutchman and took in a trip to Niagara Falls before returning to his ship, checking the cargo, writing a poem for an artillery company he was linked with and sailing for Holland. They encountered a dreadful storm on the way and put into Bermuda. In Holland there was a problem with the occupying French officials; Henry seems to have been posing as an American but took offence at anti-English remarks and to avoid further trouble for the crew he agreed to a dual in which he presumably killed a French officer and himself received a scar on his cheek. He seems to have been a man who was not afraid of a bit of violence when he considered it necessary.


After a call in southern England (where he visited his former landlady who offered him her daughter in marriage, a girl of barely 15 years) he headed for Spain and Portugal on the way to Philadelphia where they turned round in 15 days and set off for Smyrna (he makes a number of disparaging remarks about the ‘depraved’ Arabs and Moors) via Gibraltar and returning via the Azores – a ten month round trip followed by one to fetch a vessel from Quebec to New York but when he was not given command of it, but of a schooner instead, his pride was hurt and he let his friend’s employ and served as mate for three voyages on a vessel belonging to another merchant – narrowly escaping drowning but not imprisonment by the Dutch in Demerara on suspicion of smuggling. Chagrined with America he returned to England (using a clever and daring ruse to avoid a French privateer – ch21).


It was at this point that he was introduced to the rich uncle thought to be James Hodges, who seems to have been a ship owner, and who employed him on some business matters and sent him into Wales to officiate at a silver and lead mine he was running (Memoirs chapter 21). Roz discovered from Samuel Meyrick's History of Cardiganshire that the mine was probably owned by James Hodges:


Silver Mines

·   Cwmsymlog ; Sir Hugh Middleton, then Mr.Pryse/Gogerthan & others ; 1750

·   Daren Vawr ; Mr Griffiths/Pen-y-bontpren, then Mr Pryse ; 1720

·   Goginan ; Mr Townsend/London ; c 1760

·   Daren Vach ; Gogerthan estate

·   Cwm Ervyn ; Townsend, Smith & Co, then Lewis Jones/Cwmrheidol ; late C18 ?

·   Llanvair ; Mr Townsend/Swansea, then his son, then Hodges of Trelech/Monmouthshire,  then Thomas Johnes/Havod, then John Beadnell/London, then Mr J Williams/Llwyn y Berthlan,Carmarthenshire ; 'very old'


Actually, having written Meyrick's biography I have the book, but cannot find that quote in it! However, it would seem clear that this is where Henry went.


There are records of the Winsloe estate in Gwent Record Office catalogue, it came from James Hodges' daughter and heir, which says: James Hodges of Monmouth, and later of Trelleck, timber merchant, built up estates in Trelleck and Henllys by purchase … There's quite a lot of Winsloe descendants as places in Canada are named after them.


We might note that the name Winslow appears in the story of Faith Gardiner.


The mine was located amid ‘immense’ mountains in a Welsh speaking area and when not inspecting the mine or hunting, shooting and fishing with a ‘first-rate Admiral’ he found time to fall for a local girl, the daughter of a ‘respectable tanner’. Someone told his uncle who not surprisingly disapproved and arranged for him to become first officer on an Indiaman, though events conspired against this arrangement. Henry returned to Wales and married without his uncle’s knowledge and was forbidden ever to come to his house again, having had no chance to put his case. He wandered lost the whole night but was able to settle his affairs and sign on as chief officer on a ship of 29 guns – it was on this voyage that he suffered the dreadful wound that left his forehead disfigured; he had rallied the men to resist a French attack but part of the boarding netting stanchion was shot away and struck his head. It was treated by bandaging it with brown sugar and brandy. On arrival in the States he took a mortgage on a house and garden then sailed for Buenos Aires, returning after 10 months, continuing to Havana and then back to America.


He soon afterwards proceeded to England to collect his wife but returning to America found the house sold and himself $1,500 lighter – so went back to sea as his money was running out. The parting from his wife was so painful that on return he decided to settle ashore, teaching navigation and celestial observation. after ‘some years’ residing there his wife’s health began to decline (due perhaps to the climate and the loss of a son) so they sailed for England (leaving his educational responsibilities to someone well qualified but on his return finding he had been superseded had no difficulty resuming his own position. A period of two or three years of ‘celibacy’ ashore induced him to return to sea, making several voyages in the Americas in a ship he had bought, on one occasion losing all his crew but a black man and a boy and then, having reached port in Charleston, losing a considerable amount of property in a fire that destroyed 350 houses. A dispute arose concerning a charity performance in a church and apparently a poem by the Captain in the Charleston Courier helped allay the contention.


News from England made him embark for there with a considerable amount of property which he foolishly failed to insure. On the way they were captured by a French privateer. The French took control of his ship but he was able, briefly, to confine the occupiers in a cabin and regain control, only to lose it again and be wounded in the arm and for his trouble. Henry again describes himself as an American at this time. The ship foundered at the mouth of the Gironde and he had to break out of the cabin he was locked in. He took command but the ship broke up and the cargo was lost. They spent three days floating with the tide before being taken ashore to Royan and thence to Bordeaux where some American merchants bailed him out of gaol. He was detained for three months, in fear of execution or life in prison, then without a trial proceeded to Paris to get a passport for America – while there he saw Napoleon and his empress – but had to travel via Morlaix. On arrival in England the loss of his property hit him hard – he had been ‘deprived of the fruits of twenty-two years of industry’ – and he tells us that he needed greater courage to face this loss than to meet the ‘murdering cannon’s mouth’.


At this point he brings the book to an end, inserting a poem composed in January 1812, so we might assume that he composed his Memoirs in a bid to make some money. He gives no indication as to what he did once he had got back to England and the obvious conclusion is that he set up as a merchant in Liverpool docks. It is not certain whether he is the Henry Gardiner aged 47 listed in a register of Aliens and Prisoners of War (Ancestry.com). He was a merchant, has a wife, is said to have been there since 7th December 1809 and stated his intention to become a US citizen as soon as the law allowed. The address is illegible and a date is given, July 3rd 1812, but its significance is not stated. Since the Captain was planning a tour on foot through the Welsh Marches in May 1812 and was back in Liverpool on October 9th it does not seem possible that he could also have been in the USA.



A Henry Gardiner aged 47 in the USA in July 1812.



Henry Gardiner – Liverpool Merchant, Poet and Economist


Henry seems to have established a business on the waterfront in Wapping (the Henry Gardner, gent, of Bedford St. seems to be unconnected with the grocer of Wapping but that is not certain - Henry 'gent' is already listed in 1827). Presumably he is the Mr. Gardiner who advertised the recital of a ‘Patriotic Poem’ about the war in Spain in the Freemen’s Hall in 1812 and it is tempting to assume that the Edward Gardiner, son of Henry (grocer of Liverpool) and Mary, born on 6th August and baptised on October 20th 1816 in St. Mark’s, was the son of Cpt. Gardiner but that cannot be proved and we have no idea what happened to him. If this is correct then the Henry baptised in St. Peter’s on 16th April 1815 by Mary and Henry may also be his son.




Left: The recital Mercury 9.10.1812

Centre: Is this Cpt. Gardiner baptising a son at St. Mark’s, Upper Duke Street, in 1816?

Right: St. Mark’s tower can be seen in the distance on the right in this picture of Berry Street in the 1830s


In 1818 he was advertising 20 tons of bread and 3 tons of old hams and he may be the Henry Gardiner who arrived in Philadelphia from Liverpool on 22nd October 1819 on board the Ship Tuscarora (Ancestry.com) and

the Mr. Gardiner, ‘a merchant of the first respectability in Liverpool and Charleston’ who in 1820 provided a letter of introduction for a Mr. Francis Hall who used it to meet General D’Evereux, apparently an associate of Simon Bolivar – a letter which served as a ‘passport to the most respectable society in Baltimore’.




Left: Mercury 27.3.1818  

Centre: Transcript of a ship’s list 1819

Right:  Mercury 11.2.1820 referring to a letter of introduction                           


In 1821 Mr. Gardiner placed an advert in the Mercury to assure is customers that, despite insinuations to the contrary, he was continuing to supply ships from his ship bread bakery and grocery warehouse at 25 Wapping. It seems that business had been adversely affected and that competitors were taking advantage to damage his reputation. He states that he has been trading for ten years. He was probably not the Henry Gardiner who arrived from Liverpool in Philadelphia in 19th July 1822 – he is described as a merchant, aged 56, belonging to the United States and intending to become an inhabitant there. (The age given here had seemed to confirm a birth in 1766 but is incompatible with what we now know.)




Left: Advert from 1821 (2.3)                        

Right: Record of a Henry Gardiner arriving in Philadelphia in 1822


In 1827 he seems to have published a book of essays on Currency, Absenteeism etc, favourably reviewed in the Mercury, which asserts the detrimental effects on Ireland of absentee landlords. These are not as exciting a read as his Memoirs: a taste of the views expressed can be seen in these extracts from Checkland’s article (pp134, 137):


For men like Gladstone, Thomas Martin, Henry Gardiner and for Liverpool generally, the merchant was an initiator, a prime mover; in spite of the fact that he was a market operator, his conduct was no mere response to market stimuli. Nor was he the creature of the Bank and its issue policy; the reverse was true. The merchant did not respond to increases in currency, by undertaking new transactions, rather did the merchant's decision to expand operations cause the increase in paper. (Essays pp25-27) … By 1827 we find Henry Gardiner explicitly attempting to make the distinction between the legitimate transaction and “The monster speculation ".


“There is but one remedy ", said Gardiner; “the folly of some must be counter- balanced by additional prudence in others ", and “no banker ought, knowingly, to discount a bill founded on a speculative transaction” (Essays p106)


He followed this up a year later with an Essay on the Reduction of the Rate of Discount by the Bank of England – price 1/-. These writings show that Henry was in tune with the thoughts of part of the Liverpool business community:


The Liverpool monetary debate between 1810 and 1827 shows something of the way a community of business men steeped in their own needs and methods may react to the solutions produced by those for whom the problem is an exercise in a priori thinking (Checkland p142).


In 1830 he is found disposing of a blockmaker’s business. In 1831 a Henry Gardiner of 12 Alfred Street was the sole agent for Fincham’s Chloride of Lime, a preventative against the cholera. In 1835 Mr. H. Gardiner was referred to in a report concerning the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool at a meeting of which he read a paper concerning the rates to support the poor which suggest he may have held relatively liberal views for the time.




Review in the Liverpool Mercury of Mr. Gardiner’s Essays (7.9.1827)




Left: Advert 8.2.1828                                      

Centre: Advert from1.1.1830                                          

Right: Advert from 1831 (18.11)                      





Left: Mr. Gardiner on the poor rate (8.5.1835)                 

Right: Signature of Henry (and his second wife)



Henry’s Family in Canada


He was originally thought to have died in 1840 in St. Anne Street, Liverpool, but that is now known to be incorrect. It is presumably pure coincidence that the 1841 census for Liverpool shows a Susan Gardiner, aged 60, living in St. Anne (or is it St. Anns) Street. Henry’s sister Susanna Hodges was baptised in 1795 so could well have been about 60 but she had become Mrs. Tummy. If it's the same woman in 1851 she was 79 and born in America East H.. Living with her were a number of apprentice merchants including a George Robbins (?) and a Samuel Gardiner Jelican (?) who was 18, presumably a connection of Admiral Jellicoe’s family (the Gardiner name may have come from the fact that her father or grandfather, originally Whalley had taken the additional name Gardiner - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jellicoe,_1st_Earl_Jellicoe#Ancestors).




Left: A Susan Gardiner in St Anne Street Liverpool, 1841

Right: The record of Henry and Sarah’s wedding in 1836


At some point the Captain’s first wife died (her health never seems to have been very robust); we know they had at least one child who died but whether any others survived is not known. On 17th June 1836 Henry, said to be resident in the parish, remarried, by licence, in Dixton, Monmouth – to a spinster of that parish aged around 33, Sarah Withers.  The witnesses were Richard Harding and Amelia Major. No baptism record has been found for Sarah but we know from other documents that she was born c1803-5 in Monmouth, England. Shortly after the wedding Henry returned to the New World to live in Canada. The authors of A Very Welsh Beginning note that he was there in 1836-7, as we are told that Faith was ‘keeping house’ for him at his large farm near St. Catherine’s, a village a short distance from Niagara Falls – the present city in Lincoln County, Ontario. Certainly there are no further known references to him in Liverpool.


With his new wife and new home he started a (new) family and had at least two children, Julia Sarah and Edward, both born in St. Catherines. Julia was apparently born on 27th December 1839 according to her death certificate, or in December 1838 according to the 1911 census, though her age in the censuses varies somewhat – 21, 30, 39, 49, (1901 is missing), 72 – and at her wedding in 1871 she was said to be 31. Edward was probably born on August 8th 1842 or perhaps 8th May if we accept his age as given on his death certificate.The Captain must have been nearly 68 when his son was born! The family has not yet been found in the 1851 Census taken in Canada and of his life for the eighteen years or so he spent there we know nothing – presumably it was, as Jones and Thomas (p108) state, rather prosaic in comparison with his life at sea. A Very Welsh Beginning (pp103, 108) tells us that he died in St. Catherines on 31st March 1853. The St. Catherines Journal for 7th April read:


DIED: At Grove Cottage, near St. Catherine’s, on the 31st ult., Capt. Henry Gardiner, in his 79th year of his age. He was author of the Anglo American, Campaigne in Spain, etc., etc.


His will, written on 17th March 1852, listed his heirs as Sarah ‘my beloved wife’, Edward ‘my son’, Susan ‘my sister’ and Julia Sarah ‘my daughter’.


In 1861 Sarah (56, England), Julia (21) and Edward (18, both Canada W.) were living in the village in a single storey brick house – no employment is shown and no addresses are given - and in 1871 we find them still there, aged 66, 30 and 28 – Edward was a land surveyor. They were all Wesleyan Methodists. Edward must have moved out soon after the census: a street directory for St Catherines for the year 1871 lists Sarah and Edward, spelling their names differently. Sarah (widow of Henry) was living in Academy Street while Edward was a county surveyor living in St. Paul Street.



The Captain’s family in St. Catharine’s in 1861



And in 1871



Sarah and Edward in the 1871 Dominion Street Directory


On 14th June 1871 Julia married, in St. Catherines, to Benjamin C. Fairfield, a 33 year old widower, bookseller and stationer, son of Charles and Sarah Hough Fairfield. The witnesses were Edwin Gardiner (presumably a relative living locally though there is no one of that name in the censuses and it could be an error for Edward) and George E. Gibbon from London.




Left and Centre Left: Extracts from Julia’s                                                      

Centre Right and Right: And from Edward’s


Edward too got married, to a local girl Amelia Cook (aged 32). The marriage took place in St Catherines on 1st November 1877. He was a ‘pro land surveyor’ aged 35(?), son, as we know, of Henry and Sarah.


Around 1880 the Fairfields moved to 151 Geneva Street. In 1881 Julia was (39) living in St. Catherines with her husband Benjamin (43, merchant), step-son Charles (17) and children Isabella (7) and Harry (3). All were Methodists and born in Ontario.



The Fairfields in 1881


Sarah was still alive (aged 76) and Edward Gardiner, P L Surveyor, 38, Methodist, is also found in St. Catherine’s with wife Amelia E. (36) and presumed children Henry Cook (2) and Annie Julia (1) – all born in that province.




Sarah alone in St. Catherine’s in 1881



Sarah died on August 16th 1890, of bronchitis supervening on old age. Few particulars are given but she was said to be 87, placing her birth in 1803.













Death certificate of Sarah Gardiner 1890



Julia (Fairfield) was in St. James’ Ward with her husband, children and domestic servant; we are told that both her parents were born in England, confirming the assumption that the Captain was born in Herefordshire (or Monmouth) and not in America.



Julia and her family in St. Catherine’s in 1891


Edward, an engineer aged 59, was in St. Catherine’s in 1901 with his wife and daughter, Annie J. (born 31.7.1880).




Edward in 1901


Ten years later Edward (68, C. Engineer) was living with his wife Amelia A. (65 – born June 1844):



Edward in 1911


In 1911 Julia was 72, living at 151 Geneva Street with her husband.




Extremely hard to read entry on the 1911 census for Julia and her husband


Julia died on August 30th 1924. Her death certificate records that she died at the home she had lived in for 44 years - 15 Geneva Street - and listed her occupation as ‘household duties’. Her daughter, Miss B. Fairfield of the same address, was the informant and the burial took place on September 1st 1924. She had been ill for three to four years before she died of Paresis.


Edward died on June 26th 1929 at his home of 52 years at 177 Russell Avenue, St. Catherines. His death certificate is quite informative: hormerly aland surveyor and civil engineer, at the time of his death he was 87 years, 1 month and 13 days old (a figure incompatible with the stated date of birth of 8.8.1843 but matching the information given on the 1911 census – May 1842! His father was said to have been born in Herefordshire, his mother, Sarah Withers, in Monmouth. A doctor had been in attendance from 23rd to 25th and he died of pneumonia (congestion of the lung) and old age a day later. The informant was his daughter Annie J. Gardiner. He was buried in Victoria Lawn Cemetery on the 29th.







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